Why do we have seasons?
tilt of earth on its axis- gives some parts of the earth direct rays and other parts oblique rays
What is the Coriolis effect?
the curvature of the path of wind due to the rotation of the earth
Describe atmospheric circulation across the earth.6
1. air at equator is heated, rises and hold water vapor
2. air cools as it rises and loses capacity to hold water vapor
3. precipitation occurs near equator
4. cool dry air descends at 30 degrees and warms as it descends
5. air from 30 moves to 60 at surface
6. air rises again at 60
What two things do gyres affect?
1. biological productivity
2. climate on adjacent land mass
Explain the rain shadow effect.
Wind moves over a body of water, picks up water vapor. Moves toward a mountain and rises, loses water- precipitation. Dry air moves over mountain leaving other side of peak dry and arid
What two abiotic factors affect the location of a biome?
temperature and precipitation
What are the 9 land biomes?
rain forest, savanna, temperate grasslands, deciduous forests, evergreen forests, deserts, taiga, tundra, polar ice
In which aquatic biome is there an important symbiosis that is high in productivity?
coral reef: cnidarians and algae
What is the result of thermal stratification?
a cut-off of oxygen in the bottom layer--> death of organisms
Describe oligtrophic and eutrophic in terms of algal nutrients.
Oligotrophic lakes contain no algal nutrients and eutrophic lakes contain high levels of algal nutrients.
List the functional regions of the ocean from highest productivity to lowest productivity.
upwelling, continental, oligotrophic
What type of bacteria live with the large worms at the deep sea vents?
symbiotic sulfur-eating bacteria
What is biological magnification?
chemical concentrations increase in organisms at higher levels of the food chain.
What are 3 effects of acid rain?
1. changes in pH of aquatic habitats
2. damage to trees
3. damage to bronze/marble
What chemicals are involved with acid rain?
coal is burned, S is oxidized, Hg is released
What chemical is involved with deep sea vents?
What are four effects of deforestation?
erosion, run-off, habitat loss, loss of nutrients from soil
What is causing a hole in the ozone?
CFCs are released into the atmosphere and Cl- breaks ozone into oxygen