Came up with the heliocentric theory, which said that the stars, the earth, and other planets revolve around the sun and the sun is the center of the universe. Wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"
Danish astronomer who recorded the movements of the planets for many years.
discovered the law of the pendulum. Found that falling objects accelerate at a fixed and predictable rate. Built his own telescope. Wrote "Starry Messenger" describing the moons rough surface and that jupiter has 4 moons. Also wrote, "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" and was arrested by the pope.
An english politician and writer. In his writings he attacked scholars for relying on conclusions of aristotle and other ancient thinkers. Urged scientist to experiment. Developed the experimental method(empiricism).Helped develop the scientific method,classical music, reduction, syllogism
Dutch eyeglass maker who invented the first microscope.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
used a telescope and was the first to see bacteria,saw red blood cells for the first time; immature insects
developed the first mercury barometer, gave scientists explanation of wind, wrote torracelli's law
Dutch physicist who made the first mercury thermometer. his thermometer showed water freezing at 32*. alcohol thermometer, farenheit scale
created another scale for the mercury themometer and showed water freezing at 0* ; celcius scale, allowed scientists to have more accurate calculations
Ancient greek physician. studied the anatomy of animals and thought human anatomy was the same. medicine, discovered that arteries have blood, the heart is the origin, the brain controls the nerves
Flemish Physician who disected human corpses and published, "On the Fabric of the Human Body" which was filled with drawings of human bones, muscle and bone. It was the most accurate work on the human body
English doctor. Studied anatomy and discovered that the heart was like a pump that circulated blood; published, " On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals" described the function of blood vessels.
British Physician. introduced vaccine to prevent smallpox. Discovered inoculation with cowpox gave permanent protection from smallpox. Used cowpox to produce the worlds' first vaccination
Founder of modern chemistry, created boyles law and explained pressure, volume, and temperature's relationships. Wrote "The Sceptical Chemist"
did most experiments modeled after joseph priestly and named the gas Joseph Priestly discoverd, oxygen
English political thinker starting the enlightment. "Leviathan"; said all humans are naturally selfish and wicked. Said that without government there would be, "War of every man against every man" and life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Created Social Contract. Said a strong ruler was needed, wanted absolute monarchy.
English political thinker starting the enlightment. believed people could learn from experience and impove themselves. criticized absolute monarchy and favored self-government. Believed all people are born free and equal with 3 natural rights- life, liberty, property and the government is to protect these rights or be overthrown by the people. Wrote "Two Treatisies on Government". Founder of modern democracy. Inspired Thomas Jefferson for the ideas of the declaration of independance
letters on the english, discussing glorious revolution, english bill of rights and limited monarchy; Candide. Fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief and freedom of speech. said, "Crush the evil kings!"
Baron de Montesquieu
studied political liberty; 3 branches of government, checks and balances; "On the Spirit of Laws" said "Power should be a check to power."
Cesare Boneesana Beccaria
believed laws existed to preserve social order. Wrote "On Crimes and Punishments" argued for speedy trial and that torture should never be used.
Wrote for womens rights, "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies" said, "If absolute soverignty be not necessary in a state, how comes it to be so in a family?... If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?" Fought for womens right to education
"A Vindication of Rights of Women", argued that women need education. Argued for women's rights to participate in politics. women are not naturally inferior to men
Maria- Therese Geoffrin
most influencial of the salon hostesses. Sread enlightment ideas. Helped finance encyclopedia.
Wrote works for the 1st encyclopedia, attacked the old regime
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozzart
worte the first opera. "The Marriage of Figaro", "Don Giovanni", "The Magic Flute" set a new standard for elegance and originality. wrote more than 600 works.
Developed features of the modern novel. Wrote one of the first english novel in 1740, "Pamela" His novels made people question their values, behavior, gender, and social roles in place
a new way of thinking about the natural world, based on observation and willingness to question accepted beliefs
Brah's assistant and a brilliant mathmatician. Studied Brah's work and concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion. One of these laws showed that the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles.His laws showed that copernicus' basic ideas were true, they demonstrated mathematically that planets revolve around the sun
a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. It begins with a problem or question arising from an observation. Next comes a hypothesis which is then tested in an experiment. Then scientists analyze and interpret their data to research new conclusions which either confirm or disprove the hypothesis
developed analytical geometry, which linked algebra and geometry. Relied on Mathematics and logic to gain knowledge. Said, "I think, therefore I am."Developed the scientific method.
English scientist who studied mathematics and physics. Discovered the law of universal gravitation. Wrote, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"
Seperated oxygen from the air. Said, "Who can tell but that, in time, this pure air may become a fashionble article of luxury? Hitherto only two mice and i have had the privilage of breathing it."
The age of reason
Social critics of France who believed that people could apply reason to all aspects of life. 5 concepts formed their philosophy, reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
Commited to individual freedom. argued that civilization corrupted people. Said, "Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains." Wanted direct democracy. Wrote, "The Social Contract"
Social gatherings in which philosophers, writers, artists, scientists, and other great intellects met to discuss ideas and enjoy artistic performances.
a grand, ornate style that characterized european painting, music, and architecture
a simple elegant style that characterized the arts in europe. "new classical"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Wrote beautiful piano music, string quartets, and stirring symphonies. Carried music into the Age of Romanticism.
English Novelist. Wrote, "Robinson Crusoe"
Monarchs that were inspired by enlightment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of their subjects.