GENERAL PSY CH.13

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Personality

unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life.

How personality differes from character or temperament

Personality should not be confused with Character, which refers to value judgements made about a person's morals or ethical behavior; nor should it be confused with temperament, the enduring characteristics with which each person is born, such as irritability or adaptability. Temperament is based in one's biology, either through genetic influences, prenatal influences, or a combination of those influences, and forms the basis upon which one's larger personality is built.

Freuds Parts OF FIRST AND MOST PRIMITIVE PART OF PERSONALITY PRESENT IN THE INFANT. 1.Personality ID=(LITTLE DEVIL ON SHOULDER)

Works on the pleasure principle (seeks pleasure to avoid pain); innate, biological instincts, immature selfserving, implusive, sexual and aggressive impulses.(Birth primal 18 months( IRRANTINAL) (EX:BABYHUNGRY CRIES SOMETHING NOW NOW

Freuds Parts of SECOND PART OF Personality 2. Ego= (PERSON CAUGHT IN MIDDLE TRYING TO DECIDE WHAT ACTION TO TAKE.

works on the reality principle; mediator, controls impulses of id; focuses on safety; (rationalTHOUGHT) decision maker HAS MEDIATE BETWEEN TWO ID SUPEREGO.

Freuds Parts of THIRD AND FINALPersonality: 3.SuperEgo=(ANGEL ON YOUR SHOULDER)

DEVELOPS 5 OR 6 YEARS OF AGEworks on the idealistic principle (ideas of absolute right/wrong) the moral center of personality, (containing the conscience), and is the source of moral anxiety. conscience; internalized parent/sociated/directiveness/rules (ex:angel on your shoulder do good that good girl do this); creates guilt to influence behavior.

Fixation

disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflicts in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.Influences rest of your life. Go back and to through not resloved successfully.

Frauds Psychosexual1 Stage of Development: Oral

first stage occuring in the birth 18 months first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Sexual gratification from the mouth (eating, sucking, biting); too much or too little stimulation can cause problems.

Oral Aggressive Personality

too little stimulation/nursing; argumentative, sarcastic, cynical.

Oral Dependent personality

"too much" stimulation/nursing; passive, need attention, gullible.

Frauds Psychosexual 2 Stage of Development: Anal

Second stage occurring from about 18m to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Focus on the process of elimination (toilet training) child can gain approval or express rebellion.

Anal Retentive Personality

"holding on" abstinate, stingy, orderly, and compulsively clean. A person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn.

Anal Expulsive Personality

"letting go"; joy by bringing forth and producing; disorderly, destructive, messy. A person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.

Frauds Psychosexual 3 Stage of Development: Phallic Stage

Third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Increased sexual interest;( focus on genitals OF opposite sex.)

Phallic stages Fraud(Oedipal Complex)

* boy becomes attracted to his mother but fears his father may find out and castrate him (castration anxiety); alleviates anxiety by identifying with his father.

Phallic stage Fraud (Electra Complex)

* girl becomes attracted to her father; already feels inferior and castrated (penis envy); identifies with mother because she doesn't have a penis either.

Frauds Psychosexual Stage 4 of Development: Latency

Fourth stage occurring during the school years (6-12 or puberty yrs), in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways. Halt in psychosexual development.Ideal all sexual argues elementary years puberty.

Psychosexual Stage of Development: Genital

Puberty to death. Focus on mature sexual relationships.

Neo-Freudians

followers of Freud who developed their own competing psychodynamic theories.

Defense Mechanism 1: Repression

pushing of threatening so traumatic experience that push down and blacks out of your mind. thoughts and memories into unconscious. (ex:child get raped at young age so traumatic out of her memory)

Defense Mechanism 2: Denial

Refusing to acknowledge reality of situation.not recongnizing risk/danger/loss.(ex:loose loved one you cant believe and wont deny it happen)

Defense Mechanism 3: Rationalization

develop socially acceptable reasons (excuses) to justify behavior.(ex:if i dont eat breakfast I can eat that piece of cake later without hurting my diet)

Defense Mechanism 4:Displacement

Redirecting impulses onto a "substitue" target(.Ex:Boss yelled at me at work so when i got home i screamed at my kids)

Defense Mechanism 5: Projection

attributing our own thoughts and feelings onto others.Idea we dont see in our selves but can easily see in others.(ex:sally is attracted to sisters boyfriend but she acts as not true and believes the boyfriend is one that is attracted to her)

Defense Mechanism 6: Regression

falling back on childlike pattern as a way coping as young child stressful situations.(ex: four year old wet his bed after parents brought home a new baby).

Defense Mechanism 7: Reaction Formation

Idea have behavior one way but argue for the opposite.placing anxiety - producing feelings and behaviors with the opposite feeling and behaviors; usually exaggerated. (Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy) (ex: Scott is unconsciously attracted to Blake but outward voices an extreme hatred of homosexual)

Defense Mechanism 8: Sublimation

turning socially unexpected urges into socially acceptalbe behavior. ONLY POSITIVE COPING MECHANISM PRODUCTIVE ( EX:MICHEAL WHO IS VERY AGGRESSIVE BECOMES A PROFESSIONAL HOCKEY PLAYER)

(Alfred Adler)

(disagreed with Freud over the importance of sexuality in personality development. )developed that as young, helpless children, people all develop feelings of inferiority when comparing themselves to more powerful, superior adults in their world.{THE driving force behind all human endeavors, emotions, and thoughts for Adler was not the seeking of pleasure but the seeking of superiority. }(The defense mechanism of compensation ADLER THEORY, in which people try to overcome feelings of inferiority in one area of life by striving to be superior in another area.) Also developed a theory that the birth order of a child affected personality.

(Karen Horney)

(DID NOT STUDY DIRECTLY WITH FRAUD) BUT STUDIED HIS WORK AND TAUGHT PSYCHOANALYSIS IN BERLIN. SHE LEFT WITH INSTITUTE BECAUSE OF DISAPPOINTMENTS WITH FRAUD WITH DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES AND THE CONCEPT OF THE (PENIS ENVY) SHE STRONGLY DISAGREED.(RATHER THAN FOCUSING ON SEXUALITY HORNEY,FOCUSED ON CHILDS SENSE OF BASIC ANXIETY THE ANXIETY IS CREATED IN CHILD BORN INTO WORLD THAT IS SO MUCH BIGGER AND POWERFUL THAN THE CHILD. WHILE KIDS THAT PARENTS GAVE LOVE AFFECTION CHILD OVERCOMES THE ANXIETY, OTHERS WITH LESS SECURE UP BRINGINGS WOULD DEVELOP NEUROTIC PERSONALITYS AND MALADAPTIVE WAYS OF DEALING WITH RELATIONSHIPS SOME BECOME CLINGY AND DEPENDENT SOME BECOME AGGRESSIVE ,DEMANDING, CRUEL.

(Carl Gustav Jung)

(disagreed with Freud about the nature of the unconscious mind). Believed that the unconscious held much more than personal fears, urges, and memories. Believed that there was not only a personal unconscious, as described by Freud, but a collective unconscious (memories shared by all members of the human species) as well. The collective unconscious contains a kind of "species" or "racial" memory, memories of ancient fears and themes that seem to occur in many folktales and cultures. archetypes (collective, universal human memories), two well known anima/animus (the feminine side of a man/the masculine side of a woman) & shadow (the dark side of personality, called the Devil in Western cultures). The side of one's personality that is shown to the world is termed the persona

Social-Cognitive View(: ALBERT BANDURA) AND (JULIAN ROTTER)

SOCIAL CONGITIVE =BEHAVIOR CAN'T SEE (THOUGHTS)learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models.

Behavioral perspective

researchers who use the principles of conditioning to explain the actions and reactions of both animals and humans.

SOCIAL COGNTIVE: (ALBERT BANDURA Reciprocal Determinism:

BANDURAS EXPLANATION OF HOW THE FACTORS OF ENVIROMENT PERSONAL CHARTERISTICS ,BEHAVIOR AND THOUGHTS CAN INTERACT TO DETERMINE FUTURE BEHAVIOR.(WHO WE ARE ENVIORMENT) ANY POINT YOU CAN TAKE CONTROLL AND CHANGE YOUR BEHAVIOR. ONLY CHANGE YOURSELF NOT ANYONE ELSE. BY CHANGING IT COULD INFLUENCE SOMEONE ELSE.

SOCIAL COGNITIVE: (ALBERT BANDURA Self-Efficacy:

individual's SENSE OF CONFIDENCE AND EFFECTIVENESS expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.1.PAST EXPERIENCES: EX:WATCH FOOD NETWORK.:2.WATCH OTHERS AND SEE CONSQUENCES: SUCCESSFUL AT COOKING ON THE SHOW. 3. VERBAL PERSUASION:EX: OK YOU BURNED CAKE 4.PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL: HAVE A COLD AND YOUR NOT TOP OF YOUR GAME ON A TEST. IF YOU CAN CHANGE ANY OF THEM LIKE VERBAL PERSUASION i CAN DO THIS.

HUMANISM of Carl Rogers: Self-Actualization

the striving to fulfill one's innate capacities and capabilities

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: Self-Concept

the image of oneself that develops from interactions with important, significant people in one's life.BY OURSELVES AND BY SIGNIFICANT OTHERS REAL SELF.

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: SELF CONCEPT (REAL SELF)

one's perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities.

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: Ideal Self

one's perception of whom one should be or would like to be.

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: Positive Regard

warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant other's in one's life.

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: Unconditional Positive Regard

positive regard that is given without conditions or strings attached.

Humanistic Theory of Carl Rogers: Conditional Positive Regard

positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish.BASED ON BEHAVIOR MEETING OTHER PERSON EXPECTATIONS. ANOTHER TERM FULLY FUNCTIONOING PERSON=MUST EXPERINCE UNCODITIONAL POSTIVE REGARD

The Big Five, dimensions of personality are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, __________, and ____________.

agreeables; neuroticism

Locus of control (Julian Rotter, Social Cognitive)

Expectancy that one's reinforcements are controlled by internal or external factors.

Internal locus of control

Taking responsibility for what happens; blaming yourself.

EXTERNAL

WHATEVER WILL BE IN THE FATES WILL DETERMINE NOT UP TO ME TO DECIDE (VICTIM ROLE)

EXPECTANCY

WHAT DO WE EXPECT

THREE FORCES IN PSYCHOLOGY: .

1.PSYCHONALYSIS: FRAUD THEORY MOST STUDIES CASE STUDIES BUT, NO NUMBERS LATE 1800S EARLY 1900..
2.BEHAVIORISM:(ONLY WHAT YOU SEE )
ALL ABOUT NUMBERS AND CONTROL MORE SCIENTIFIC CLASSICAL CONDITIONING =BY:PALVO, WATSON SKINNER, BANDORA
3.HUMANISM:FREE WILL CHOICE BY: CARL ROGERS, ABRAHAM MASLOW.

trait

concerned with specific characteristics of individuals

Sigmund freud during victorian society. world war 11 JEWISH FROM AUSTRALIA USED COCAINE THROUGH CHILDHOOD . STRUCTURE OF HIS MIND:WAS LIKE A ICEBERG VERY TOP SURFACE WE HAVE ARE CONSIOUS=WHAT WE ARE AWARE OF

sexual time of repression. divided mind into three parts; preconscious, conscious, unconscious.

FREUD CONCEPTIONS OF THE PERSONALITY ICEBERG REPRESENTS THREE LEVELS OF THE MIND:

.1.THE PART OF ICEBERG THAT IS( VISIBLE ABOVE THE SURFACE IS THE CONSCIOUS MIND.(CONTACT WITH OUTSIDE WORLD)
2.JUST BELOW THE SURFACE IS THE (PRECOCIOUSNESS) M:IND EVERYTHING THAT IS NOT YET PART OF THE CONSCIOUS MIND.
MATERIAL JUST BENEATH THE SURFACE OF AWARENESS)
3.HIDDEN DEEP BELOW SURFACE IS (UNCONSCIOUS MIND): FEELING, MEMORIES, THOUGHTS, URGES THAT CANNOT BE EASILY BROUGHT INTO CONSCIOUSNESS.
WHILE TWO OF THE THREE PARTS IF THE PERSONALITY (EGO AND SUPEREGO) EXIST AT ALL (THREE LEVELS OF AWARENESS){, ID IS COMPLETELY IN THE UNCONSCIOUS MIND}.

mind memories, info that is accessible if you want to retrieve it.EVERYTHING NOT MET YET PART OF CONSCUOUS MIND.

PRECONSCIOUS MIND

conscious mind one's current awareness.

...

part of mind that remains hidden at all times. surfaces only in dreams and manifests in unexplained behavior. most important factor in personality.
three parts of personality

UNCONSICOUS MIND

HIERACHY OF NEEDS HUMANIST ABRAHAM MASLOW:

(UNDERSTAND HOW INFLUENCES WHO YOU ARE)

bandura's theory of personality development

reciprocal determinism

reciprocal determinism

environment influences us and we influence our environment.

self efficacy

expectations of whether one's own behavior will accomplish a goal in that circumstance.

humanistic view

carl rogers and abraham maslow. focused on aspects of personality that make people uniquely human.

self-actualization tendency

need to fulfill one's own potential

formation of self concept

real self v. ideal self

trait theories

describe personalities and try to predict behavior based on personality.

GORDON Allport's trait theory

believed traits were wired in nervous system. each person's traits like a constellation of other features.

RAY MOND Cattell's 16PF

:surface traits v. source traits.MORE BASIC through statistical methods, identified 16 source traits.ASPECTS PERSONALITY EASILY SEEN BY OTHERS SURFACE TRATI.

TRAIT SITUATION INTERACTION

FOCUS ON TRAIT DESCRIBING PREDICTING BELITTLING LIBABILITY.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs (five levels);set of needs pyarmaid.

self-actualization Top pyarmid : 1) physical needs hunger water sleep sex; 2) safety; 3) belongingness to group and love ; 4) esteem; education component contributing capable 5) _______.
physiological Type of need: need to satisfy hunger and thirst.
safety Type of need: need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; to feel safe, secure and stable.
belongingness and love Type of need: need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted, to avoid loneliness and alienation.
esteem Type of need: need for self-esteem, achievement, competence and independence, need for recognition and respect from others.
self actualization Type of need: need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential.

personality test that is administered and scored in a standard way; personality inventory; yes/no are typical answers; most widely used; drawbacks-self-report, familiarity with other tests may affect individuals answers; examples-16 PF, and MBTI, MMPI(2

..OBJECTIVE TEST.

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