Bolshevik Revolution (1917)
The second stage of the Russian Revolution in November 1917 when Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik party seized power and established a communist state. The first stage had occurred the previous February when more moderate revolutionaries overthrew the Russian Czar. (770)
Seattle general strike (1919)
First wide labor action to be considered a "general strike" It helped start off the "Red Scare" of 1919-1920. The mayor threatened to send armed police and federal troops and when it had finished he remarked that "Americanism had triumphed over Bolshevism"
"Red Scare" (1919-1920)
Brief period of mass anti-communist paranoia in the U.S., during which a number of legislatures passed anti-red statutes that often violated the right to free speech.
A. Mitchell Palmer
Alexander Mitchell Palmer was born on 4th May, 1872. Educated at Swarthmore College, Pennsylvania, he was admitted to the bar in 1893.
A supporter of the Democratic Party, Palmer served in the House of Representatives (1909-15) and worked closely with Woodrow Wilson in his successful presidential campaign in 1912.
In 1919 Wilson appointed Palmer as his attorney general. Palmer had previously been associated with the progressive wing of the party and had supported women's suffrage and trade union rights. However, once in power, Palmer's views on civil rights changed dramatically.
Worried by the revolution that had taken place in Russia, Palmer became convinced that Communist agents were planning to overthrow the American government. His view was reinforced by the discovery of thirty-eight bombs sent to leading politicians and the Italian anarchist who blew himself up outside Palmer's Washington home. Palmer recruited John Edgar Hoover as his special assistant and together they used the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918) to launch a campaign against radicals and left-wing organizations.
Palmer claimed that Communist agents from Russia were planning to overthrow the American government. On 7th November, 1919, the second anniversary of the Russian Revolution, over 10,000 suspected communists and anarchists were arrested. Palmer and Hoover found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects were held without trial for a long time. The vast majority were eventually released but Emma Goldman and 247 other people, were deported to Russia.
In January, 1920, another 6,000 were arrested and held without trial. These raids took place in several cities and became known as the Palmer Raids. A. Mitchell Palmer and John Edgar Hoover found no evidence of a proposed revolution but large number of these suspects, many of them members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), continued to be held without trial. When Palmer announced that the communist revolution was likely to take place on 1st May, mass panic took place. In New York, five elected Socialists were expelled from the legislature.
When the May revolution failed to materialize, attitudes towards Palmer began to change and he was criticised for disregarding people's basic civil liberties. Some of his opponents claimed that Palmer had devised this Red Scare to help him become the Democratic presidential candidate in 1920.
Palmer failed to win the nomination and although he helped Al Smith (1928) and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1932) in their campaigns, he was no longer an important force in the Democratic Party. Alexander Mitchell Palmer died on 11th May, 1936.
Sacco and Vanzetti (1921)
attorney general who authorized anti-radical raids and deportations
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.
1921 Emergency Quota Act
An act designed to restrict the flow of immigrants into the U.S. A nation would have to fulfill a quota in order to continue sending immigrants. The requirement for a nationality was to have 3% of its total population living in the U.S. during the 1910 census. This was favorable for Southern and Eastern Europe who many immigrants had already moved to the U.S. by 1910.
1924 Immigration Act
A United States federal law that limited the number of immigrants who could be admitted from any country to 2% of the number of people from that country who were already living in the United States in 1890, according to the Census of 1890, and banned immigration of Asians. The law was aimed at further restricting the Southern and Eastern Europeans who were immigrating in large numbers starting in the 1890s, as well as prohibiting the immigration of East Asians and Asian Indians. These efforts were due in part to keep America a Protestant country.
Eighteenth Amendment (1919)
Banned the making, selling, and transporting of alcoholic beverages in the US
The Act specified that "no person shall manufacture, sell, barter, transport, import, export, deliver, furnish or possess any intoxicating liquor except as authorized by this act." It did not specifically prohibit the purchase or use of intoxicating liquors
Secret bars where alcohol could be purchased illegally
A leader of organized crime in Chicago in the late 1920s, involved in gambling, the illegal sale of alcohol, and prostitution. He was sent to prison in the 1930s for income tax evasion.
Prof. John Dewey
Significantly contributed to the educational theory by his principle of "learning by doing" which eventually led to the formation of progressive education. He believed that teachers should prepare students for life.
along with political conservatives and political action committees were opposed to big government, New Deal liberalism, gun control, feminism, gay rights, welfare, affirmative action, sexual permissiveness, abortion, and drug use, which were, in their views, responsible for undermining family and religious values, the work ethic and national security
"monkey trial" (1925), Tennessee highschool teacher who violated a state law by teaching evolution
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
United States lawyer famous for his defense of lost causes (1857-1938), Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.
a leader of the advertising industry and author of a new interpretation on Christ in The Man Nobody Knows
United States professional baseball player famous for hitting home runs (1895-1948)
United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight champion (1895-1983)
Frederick W. Taylor
an engineer that made the book The Princples of Scientific Management.
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Model "T" ("Tin Lizzie")
The first automobile mass produced on assembly lines with completely interchangeable parts to the middle class. It helped automobiles come into popular usage because of its cheap cost and its large quantity
Wright brothers (1903)
Wilbur and Orville Wright; inventors of the airplane which greatly improved transportation and closed isolation between nations Airplanes would also be used in future wars to come.
Charles A. Lindbergh (1927)
Famous pilot who traveled the Atlantic Ocean from west to east. He became a hero and helped significantly popularize the aviation industry.
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
Amos 'n' Andy
One of the first comedy shows on the radio. Shows like this helped bring families and neighbors together. It brought the nation together as well by overcoming cultural differences.
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
D. W. Griffith
Birth of a Nation (1915), carried the motion picture into the new era with his silent epics (The Birth of a Nation, Intolerance, etc.) which introduced serious plots and elaborate productions to filmmaking. Motion pictures were the first truly mass entertainment medium.
A vaudeville performer who starred in the first sound movie -- Jazz Singer -- and enthralled people with his amazing performance of singing, dancing, and speech that no one had ever experienced.
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Dr. Sigmund Freud
Viennese physician ;; believed that sexual repression was responsible for society's ills & that pleasure & health needed sexual gratification & liberation
a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles
A leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
H. L. Menken
the author of the monthly magazine American Mercury. He attacked many controversial issues such as marriage, patriotism, democracy, prohibition
F. Scott Fitzgerald
a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.
an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961) -- Farewell to Arms author and more
United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)
United States novelist (originally Falkner) who wrote about people in the southern United States (1897-1962)
chief prophet of modernism in Long, deeply concerned with creating new and often difficult styles of modernist expression. As a foreign editor of Poetry, Pound became the conduit through which many American poets achieved publication along with T. S. Eliot/Robert Frost/e. e. cummings
America's great playwright of tragedy; author of "The Iceman Cometh," "Long Day's Journey into Night," and "Moon for the Misbegotten'
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American
Frank Lloyd Wright
Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits
Buying "on margin"
buying stock by paying only a portion of the full cost up-front with promises to pay the rest later
the debt of the national government (as distinguished from the debts of individuals and businesses and political subdivisions)
Andrew W. Mellon
Secretary of Treasury under President Harding, Coolidge and Hoover, who instituted a Republican policy of reduced government spending, lower taxes to the wealthy and higher tariffs