1. A literary tradition is
the written form of a language
2. A form of a language spoken in a local area is a
3. A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is a
4. A group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history is a
5. The second-largest language family is
6. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent
possible prehistoric superfamilies
7. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the trunks of the trees represent
8. Germanic invaders of England included all but which tribe?
9. Both the Angles and the Normans contributed to the development of the English language, because they
10. English is the most important language in North America primarily because of
the diffusion of English colonies
11. The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day
12. English is part of which language family?
13. English is part of which language branch?
14. English is part of which language group?
15. Which group of the Germanic family is extinct?
16. The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of
Iceland's relative isolation from other places
17. When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe
isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two
19. The language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known as
20. The most widely spoken language in Brazil is
21. A creolized language is
a mix of indigenous and colonial languages
22. The most widely spoken Indo-European language is
24. The two most important languages in South America are
Portuguese and Spanish
25. The Flemings and Walloons live in what country?
26. The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different
28. Urdu is the most important language of
29. Russian is part of what language branch?
31. Recent evidence points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient
32. The Kurgans
may have been the first speakers of an Indo-European language
33. Basque is spoken primarily in
the Pyrenees Mountains
34. According to Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe
with the diffusion of agriculture
35. The two largest language families in the world are
Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European
36. The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is
37. The language spoken by the greatest number of people in the world is
38. Chinese is written in the form of
39. Hebrew is an example of
a revived language
41. The second most widely spoken language family in Europe is
42. The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily from
thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups
43. The most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa is
44. African languages are distinguished by the fact that
few are spoken by more than one million people
45. A lingua franca is
a language that is mutually understood by people who have different native languages
46. Dialects developed within England primarily because
different Germanic invaders settled in different regions
47. British and American English differ in all but which of the following?
48. Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds?
50. Franglais is
the use of English in the French language
52. English is part of which branch of the Indo-European family?
53. Which (in numbers of people) is the world's most extensively spoken language?
57. From where did the four Scandinavian languages derive?
58. What is one of the main elements of cultural diversity among the nearly one billion residents of India?
60. Why are 16 percent of the Chinese population over the age of sixteen unable to read or write more than a few characters of Chinese?
large number of Chinese characters
63. How do the structures of Chinese and Japanese language differ?
Japanese uses two systems of phonetic symbols
64. Which language family transcends (in importance) the number of speakers because its languages were used to write the holiest books of three major world religions\: the Bible (New and Old Testaments), and the Quran?
65. A standard Arabic language has developed among the 230 million speakers because
of the influence of the Quran, newspapers, and radio
Are you going to read chapter 5 in its entirety after completing your flashcards?
Are you going to do well on this test?
68. Which are the first and second most spoken languages in the world?
69. The three tribes that brought the beginnings of English to the British Isles came from
Germany and Denmark
73. What treaty ensured that Spanish and Portuguese would be diffused to the western portion of the New World?
Treaty of Tordesillas
74. How has Switzerland remained at peace with four or five different languages within their borders?
Switzerland has a decentralized government
77. The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were Celtic tribes who invaded England 1500 years ago.
78. English was spread around the world through the establishment of British colonies.
79. Icelandic has probably changed less over time than any other Germanic language.
80. Nearly half the people in the world speak an Indo-European language.
81. Switzerland has four official languages.
82. Germanic, Romance, and Latin are all branches of Indo-European.
83. The first speakers of Indo-European were the Kurgans.
84. Indo-European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers.
85. Basque is the only non-Indo-European language currently spoken in Europe.
86. The most popular language in China is Cantonese.
87. Hebrew is an example of an extinct language.
88. The most frequently spoken Afro-Asiatic language is Arabic.
89. Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.
90. Americans pronounce words differently than the British primarily because people changed their accents after moving to the American colonies.
91. New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans, because they came from different regions of England
92. A language family is a set of languages that can be shown to derive from a common ancestor.
93. Dravidian is part of the Indo-European language family.
94. Chinese is part of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
95. A language group is a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
96. English is a language in the West Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family.
97. Mexican Spanish and Colombian Spanish are dialects of Castilian Spanish.
98. English and German belong to the North Germanic language group.
99. English is classified in the Low Germanic subgroup of the West Germanic group.
100. Physical boundaries such as mountains or oceans are strong intervening obstacles creating barriers to communication between people living on the opposite sides.
101. Romanian is a Balto-Slavic language.
102. The branch of the Indo-European language family with the most speakers is English.
103. The Eastern group of Indo-Iranian language branch is known as Indic.
104. The most widely used languages in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh come from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
105. There are as many ways to write Hindi as there are ways to speak it
106. Collectively, Indic languages constitute the world's second largest language group.
107. Speakers of two different Indian languages who wish to communicate with each other can sometimes turn to English as a common language.
108. After Russian, Ukrainian and Belorusan are the two most important East Slavic languages.
109. The desire to use native languages other than Russian was a major drive in the breakup of the Soviet Union a decade ago.
110. There is one single Chinese language.
111. Approximately three-fourths of the Chinese people speaks Cantonese.
112. The Chinese government is imposing Mandarin countrywide
113. As in Hindi, the five different Chinese languages are written the same way.
114. The Korean language does not use ideograms
115. In the Korean language, Chinese and Japanese words are the principal sources for creating new words to describe new technology and concepts.
116. Roman Catholic missionaries devised the Vietnamese alphabet.
117. If two groups who speak the same language are isolated from one another for a long period, the two groups will speak languages that are so different that they will be classified as separate languages.
118. English is an official language in countries that contain one-third of the people of the world.
119. English is classified as a Low Germanic language because the people who migrated to England came from the northern lowlands.
120. Pronunciation has changed more in England than in the United States.
121. A language of international communication is known as a lingua franca.
122. Unlike most examples of expansion diffusion of English, recent changes in English have percolated up from common usage rather than directed down to the masses by the elite.