AP HUMAN GEO: Unit 3 Study Guide

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1. A literary tradition is

the written form of a language

2. A form of a language spoken in a local area is a

dialect

3. A group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages is a

language branch

4. A group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history is a

language family

5. The second-largest language family is

Sino-Tibetan

6. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent

possible prehistoric superfamilies

7. When languages are depicted as leaves on trees, the trunks of the trees represent

language families

8. Germanic invaders of England included all but which tribe?

Normans

9. Both the Angles and the Normans contributed to the development of the English language, because they

invaded England

10. English is the most important language in North America primarily because of

the diffusion of English colonies

11. The first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day

Denmark

12. English is part of which language family?

Indo-European

13. English is part of which language branch?

Germanic

14. English is part of which language group?

West Germanic

15. Which group of the Germanic family is extinct?

East Germanic

16. The Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of

Iceland's relative isolation from other places

17. When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe

isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two

19. The language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known as

Vulgar Latin

20. The most widely spoken language in Brazil is

Portuguese

21. A creolized language is

a mix of indigenous and colonial languages

22. The most widely spoken Indo-European language is

English

24. The two most important languages in South America are

Portuguese and Spanish

25. The Flemings and Walloons live in what country?

Belgium

26. The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different

language branches

28. Urdu is the most important language of

Pakistan

29. Russian is part of what language branch?

Balto-Slavic

31. Recent evidence points to the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient

Kurgans

32. The Kurgans

may have been the first speakers of an Indo-European language

33. Basque is spoken primarily in

the Pyrenees Mountains

34. According to Renfrew's Anatolian hearth theory, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe

with the diffusion of agriculture

35. The two largest language families in the world are

Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European

36. The language family encompassing the languages of the People's Republic of China is

Sino-Tibetan

37. The language spoken by the greatest number of people in the world is

Mandarin

38. Chinese is written in the form of

ideograms

39. Hebrew is an example of

a revived language

41. The second most widely spoken language family in Europe is

Uralic

42. The large number of individual languages documented in Africa has resulted primarily from

thousands of years of isolation between tribal groups

43. The most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa is

Niger-Congo

44. African languages are distinguished by the fact that

few are spoken by more than one million people

45. A lingua franca is

a language that is mutually understood by people who have different native languages

46. Dialects developed within England primarily because

different Germanic invaders settled in different regions

47. British and American English differ in all but which of the following?

alphabet

48. Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds?

Middle Atlantic

50. Franglais is

the use of English in the French language

52. English is part of which branch of the Indo-European family?

Germanic

53. Which (in numbers of people) is the world's most extensively spoken language?

Indo-European

57. From where did the four Scandinavian languages derive?

Old Norse

58. What is one of the main elements of cultural diversity among the nearly one billion residents of India?

language

60. Why are 16 percent of the Chinese population over the age of sixteen unable to read or write more than a few characters of Chinese?

large number of Chinese characters

63. How do the structures of Chinese and Japanese language differ?

Japanese uses two systems of phonetic symbols

64. Which language family transcends (in importance) the number of speakers because its languages were used to write the holiest books of three major world religions\: the Bible (New and Old Testaments), and the Quran?

Afro-Asiatic

65. A standard Arabic language has developed among the 230 million speakers because

of the influence of the Quran, newspapers, and radio

Are you going to read chapter 5 in its entirety after completing your flashcards?

Yes.

Are you going to do well on this test?

Yes.

68. Which are the first and second most spoken languages in the world?

Mandarin, English

69. The three tribes that brought the beginnings of English to the British Isles came from

Germany and Denmark

73. What treaty ensured that Spanish and Portuguese would be diffused to the western portion of the New World?

Treaty of Tordesillas

74. How has Switzerland remained at peace with four or five different languages within their borders?

Switzerland has a decentralized government

77. The Angles, Jutes, and Saxons were Celtic tribes who invaded England 1500 years ago.

False

78. English was spread around the world through the establishment of British colonies.

True

79. Icelandic has probably changed less over time than any other Germanic language.

True

80. Nearly half the people in the world speak an Indo-European language.

True

81. Switzerland has four official languages.

True

82. Germanic, Romance, and Latin are all branches of Indo-European.

False

83. The first speakers of Indo-European were the Kurgans.

True

84. Indo-European divided into different branches because of isolation of different speakers.

True

85. Basque is the only non-Indo-European language currently spoken in Europe.

False

86. The most popular language in China is Cantonese.

False

87. Hebrew is an example of an extinct language.

False

88. The most frequently spoken Afro-Asiatic language is Arabic.

True

89. Regional dialects in England can be traced back to the settlement patterns of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.

True

90. Americans pronounce words differently than the British primarily because people changed their accents after moving to the American colonies.

True

91. New Englanders use a different dialect of English than other Americans, because they came from different regions of England

True

92. A language family is a set of languages that can be shown to derive from a common ancestor.

True

93. Dravidian is part of the Indo-European language family.

False

94. Chinese is part of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

True

95. A language group is a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.

True

96. English is a language in the West Germanic group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family.

True

97. Mexican Spanish and Colombian Spanish are dialects of Castilian Spanish.

True

98. English and German belong to the North Germanic language group.

False

99. English is classified in the Low Germanic subgroup of the West Germanic group.

True

100. Physical boundaries such as mountains or oceans are strong intervening obstacles creating barriers to communication between people living on the opposite sides.

True

101. Romanian is a Balto-Slavic language.

False

102. The branch of the Indo-European language family with the most speakers is English.

False

103. The Eastern group of Indo-Iranian language branch is known as Indic.

True

104. The most widely used languages in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh come from the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

True

105. There are as many ways to write Hindi as there are ways to speak it

False

106. Collectively, Indic languages constitute the world's second largest language group.

True

107. Speakers of two different Indian languages who wish to communicate with each other can sometimes turn to English as a common language.

True

108. After Russian, Ukrainian and Belorusan are the two most important East Slavic languages.

True

109. The desire to use native languages other than Russian was a major drive in the breakup of the Soviet Union a decade ago.

True

110. There is one single Chinese language.

False

111. Approximately three-fourths of the Chinese people speaks Cantonese.

False

112. The Chinese government is imposing Mandarin countrywide

True

113. As in Hindi, the five different Chinese languages are written the same way.

True

114. The Korean language does not use ideograms

True

115. In the Korean language, Chinese and Japanese words are the principal sources for creating new words to describe new technology and concepts.

True

116. Roman Catholic missionaries devised the Vietnamese alphabet.

True

117. If two groups who speak the same language are isolated from one another for a long period, the two groups will speak languages that are so different that they will be classified as separate languages.

True

118. English is an official language in countries that contain one-third of the people of the world.

True

119. English is classified as a Low Germanic language because the people who migrated to England came from the northern lowlands.

True

120. Pronunciation has changed more in England than in the United States.

True

121. A language of international communication is known as a lingua franca.

True

122. Unlike most examples of expansion diffusion of English, recent changes in English have percolated up from common usage rather than directed down to the masses by the elite.

True

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