London Economic Conference (1933)
International economic conference called by League of Nations. When proposals were made to stabilize currencies, Roosevelt withdrew his support. Conference ended without any agreement.
Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934)
provided for the independence of Philippines after a 12 year period of econimc, political tutelage
"Good Neighbor" Policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
This term, associated with the Monroe Doctrine, describes the United States decision regarding their involvement in European affairs.
Mexican oil expropriation (1938)
The Mexican Oil Expropriation was the nationalization of Mexico's petroleum reserves.
The Secretary of State who believed that trade was a two-way street, that a nation can sell abroad only as it buys abroad, that tariff barriers choke off foreign trade, and that trade wars beget shooting wars. He was one of the main contributors to the reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. (P.802)
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)
designed to lift American export trade from the depression doldrums, aimed at relief and recovery, activated the low-tariff policies of the New Dealers, provided that the the other country involved was willing to respond with similar reductions (based on the idea that trade is a two-way street - Hull)
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Adolph Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. When WWI broke out, Hitler found a new beginning. he volunteered for the German army and was twice awarded the iron Cross, a medal for bravery. At the end of the war, Hitler settled in Munich. German Workers' Party, called Nazi for short. Its policies formed the German brand of fascism. It's symbol was a swastika. Hitler's success as an organizer and speaker led him to be chosen to be leader of the Nazi Party. Hitler and the Nazi's plotted to seize power. In 1932 the nazis had become the largest political party. Conservative leaders believed they could control Hitler and use him for their purposes. Hitler came to power legally in 1933. Hitler used his new power to turn Germany into a totalitarian state. he took propaganda to a new level. He enforced the secret police. His hatred of the jews, or anti-Semitism, was a key part of nazi ideology. They were Germany's scapegoats. Hitler led to the way and leaded the Holocaust.
National Socialist German Workers Party; the political party founded in Germany in 1919 and brought to power by Hitler in 1933
Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)
Nazi Germany, under Adolf Hitler, and Fascist Italy, led by Benito Mussolini, allied themselves together under this nefarious treaty. The pact was signed after both countries had intervened on behalf of the fascist leader Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. (856)
Ethiopian invasion (1935)
One of three African countries not controlled by a European power prior to 1935. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia to restore glory of Roman Empire. League of Nations took no actions.
abstention from alliances and other international political and economic relations; American foreign policy
Nye committee (1934)
formed to investigate whether or not munitions manufacturers and bankers were pro-war in WWI soley to make profit; increased anti-war atmosphere and push to pass Neutrality Acts
Neutrality Acts (1935, 1936, 1937)
series of laws that provided Americans could not ship weapons, loan money, travel on belligerent ships, extend credit, or deliver goods to any belligerent countries; they were high tide of isolationism, and all were repealed between 1939 to 1941.
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
In 1936 the army revolted and civil war began- between the Rebels and Loyalists. Republicans were backed by most ordinary Spaniards and the Soviet Union. Rebels were backed by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. This ended in 1939 with a victory for the Rebels.
Gen. Francisco Franco
lead the army in revolt and lead the nationalists against the Spanish republic in the civil war.
Japanese invasion of China (1937)
A clash occurred between Chinese and Japanese troops near Peiping in North China. When this clash was followed by indications of intensified military activity on the part of Japan, Secretary of State Hull urged upon the Japanese Government a policy of self-restraint. In a conversation of July 12 with Japanese Ambassador Saito, Secretary Hull elaborated upon the futility of war and its awful consequences, emphasizing the great injury to the victor as well as to the vanquished in case of war. He said that a first-class power like Japan not only could afford to exercise general self-restraint but that in the long run it was far better that this should characterize the attitude and policy of the Japanese Government; that he had been looking forward to an early period when Japan and the United States would have opportunity for world leadership with a constructive program like that proclaimed by the American republics at Buenos Aires in December 1936 for the purpose of restoring and preserving stable conditions of business and of peace.
FDR's "quarantine speech" (1937)
FDR's quarantine speech was intended to tell the people that the United States should remain un-envolved in foreign affairs.
Panay incident (1937)
Japanese bombers engaged in war with China bombed and sank the marked U.S. gunboat Panay and three Standard Oil ships, which were evacuating American officials from China. Japan accepted responsibilities of bombing the ships, made a formal apology and promised indemnities later set at $2 million.
Rhineland invasion (1935)
The invasion of Rhineland was a non-violent invasion. The event remilitarized Rhineland.
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Austrian annexation (1938)
Hitler coerced Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis in charge of the government, invited German Nazis to come and "help maintain order".
appeasement; Hitler promised that his last territorial demand was the Sudeten territory from Czechoslovakia
Munich Conference (1938)
During the Munich Conference of 1938, Britain and France met with Hitler, allowing him to take over Czechoslovakia as long as he agreed to expand no further. The agreement was seen as an assurance of peace.
policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory.
Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression Treaty (1939)
The Hitler-Stalin Non-Aggression treaty was created to supply peace between Germany and USSR.
Invasion of Poland (1939)
Germans invaded Poland using blitzkreg.
Britain and France declared war and Canada a week later.
Started the 2nd World war
Neutrality Act ("Cash-and-Carry") (1939)
Series of laws passed by Congress in 1935 that banned arms sales or loans to countries at war.
Elite guard, under the command of Heinrich Himmler, responsible for the administration of the concentration camps and for carrying out the "Final Solution"
American Jewish Committee
1914 - formed as organizations representing different segments of the American Jewish community pool their funds and cooperate to apportion and send money and supplies abroad for Jewish war relief. American Jews felt guilty, especially Jews who left family behind in Europe during the war (WWI) so they feel the need to send money to help as much as they can.
American Jewish Congress
Civil rights organization to defend the rights of minorities in the US, and to defend and support Israel.
was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
Invasion of France (1940)
As the Soviets pushed toward Germany from the east. Allies were planning a massive invasion of France from the west. Landed on the French coast of Normandy, on July 6, 1944. From Normandy the Allies pushed across France, and liberated Paris.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
Havana Conference (1940)
the United States agreed to share with its twenty New World neighbors the responsibility of upholding the Monroe Doctrine
"Battle of Britain" (1940)
series of air strikes on Britain by Germany from August to November of 1940 in an attempt to gain air supremacy.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
The group advocated American military materiel support for Britain as the best way to keep the United States out of the conflict then raging in Europe. Politically, they would be classified as being pro-intervention; that is, they strongly believed the United States should actively assert itself in the War in Europe. The CDAAA supported the Lend-Lease Act; they opposed the various Neutrality Acts of the late 1930's and sought their revision or repeal.
The CDAAA disagreed strongly with another powerful group, the America First Committee, who advocated complete neutrality and non-intervention. The America First Committee believed that the U.S. should not become involved in foreign conflicts.
America First Committee (Lindbergh)
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
Destroyer Deal (1940)
the U.S. traded 50 old-model destroyers left over from WWI to Britain in return for eight valuable defensive base sites, stretching from Newfoundland to South America
Wendell Willkie (1940)
Wendell Willkie was a presidential elect in the year 1940. The Republican gained much support in his quest for presidency.
Lend-Lease Law (1941)
President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the lend-lease law to give aid to Britain and China. Like loaning a 'garden hose to a neighbor'
Hitler Invades USSR (1941)
Germany infantry invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. Over 4.5 million troops invaded.
Atlantic Charter (1941)
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which they live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
Greer, Kearny, and Ruben James incidents (1941)
The sinking of US ships from German torpedoes. This caused increased tension between the two nations.
Japanese embargoes (1940-1941)
Japan needed U.S. for its Strategic Materials which were key to fighting a war, U.S. cut back on these materials to try and prevent Japan from entering war, Ultimately lead Japan to attacking Pearl Harbor.
Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)
The Japanese naval air force made a surprise attack on the U.S. naval base in this place in Hawaii. Several battleships of the U.S. Pacific fleet were damaged or sunk. This attack resulted in an Amercian declaration of war the following day. Canada also declared war on Japan. Canadian soldiers in Hong Kong were soon fighting as the Japanese attacked the British colony the same day as this.
German war declaration (December 11, 1941)
Germany declaration of war against the United States. Mainly caused by Britian's declaration of war against Germany.