Botany: Plant Tissues and Cell Types

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UALR Botany: Plant Tissues and Cell Types Review

Apical Meristem

A mass of dividing cells at the very tip of a shoot or root

Chorenchyma

Parenchyma tissue possessing chloroplasts

Collenchyma

A tissue composed of living cells with thickened cell walls capable of stretching that fit rather closely together; found in young stems and petioles

Companion Cell

Phloem cell associated with sieve-tube members

Cork Cambium

A meristem that forms the periderm (bark and related tissues); synonym for phellogen

Cortex

Region of primary tissue in a stem or root bounded externally by the epidermis and internally in the stem by the phloem and in the root by the pericycle; develops from the primary meristem, the ground meristem

Cuticle

Waxy layer on outer wall of epidermal cells

Dermal Tissue System

Consists of the outer tissues of the plant body, epidermis (a primary tissue) and the periderm (a secondary tissue); functions to protect the plant body from drying, pathogens, and insects

Epidermis

A superficial layer of cells occurring on all parts of the primary plant body: stems, leaves, roots, flowers, fruits, and seeds; it is absent from the root cap and is not differentiated on the apical meristems

Fiber

Tan elongated, tapering, thick-walled strengthening cell occurring in various parts of plant bodies; one of the cell types in sclerenchyma tissue

Ground Meristem

A primary meristem that gives rise to cortex, mesophyll, and pith

Ground Tissue System

Tissues of the plant body responsible for housekeeping functions, for example, storage, support, photosynthesis, and others; collenchyma, sclerenchyma, and parenchyma

Guard Cell

Specialized epidermal cell found on young stems and leaves; between each pair of guard cells is a small pore through which gases enter or leave; a pair of guard cells in addition to the pore constitute a stoma

Meristem

Sites in the plant body where cells divide and where differentiation into specialized cells and tissues is initiated

Mesophyll

Parenchyma tissue of leaf between epidermal layers, where most photosynthesis takes place

Parenchyma

A tissue composed of cells that perform housekeeping functions such as photosynthesis and storage of water and other substances; cells usually have thin walls of cellulose, and often fit rather loosely together, leaving intercellular spaces

Periderm

Protective tissue that replaces the epidermis after secondary growth is initiated; consists of cork, cork cambium, and phelloderm

Phloem

Food-conducting tissue, consisting of sieve-tube members with companion cells or sieve cells, phloem parenchyma, and fibers

Pith

The parenchyma tissue occupying the central portion of a stem or root

Primary Meristems

Meristems of the shoot or root tip giving rise to the primary tissues—protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium

Primary Phloem

The part of the phloem differentiated from the procambium during primary growth

Primary Tissue

Tissue that forms from primary meristems (epidermis, xylem, phloem, and ground tissues)

Primary Xylem

The part of the xylem differentiated from the procambium during primary growth

Procambium

A primary meristem that gives rise to primary vascular tissues and, in most woody plants, to the vascular cambium

Protoderm

A primary meristem that gives rise to epidermis

Sclereid

A type of sclerenchyma cell with a heavily lignified cell wall; can have a variety of shapes

Schlerenchyma

A strengthening tissue composed of cells with heavily lignified cell walls; two main cell types are fibers and sclereids

Secondary Phloem

Tissue formed by division of the vascular cambium, usually toward the outside of the organ

Secondary Xylem

Tissue formed by division of the vascular cambium, usually toward the inside of the organ; main component of wood

Sieve Tube Member

The main type of conducting cell in the phloem of flowering plants; connected to other sieve tube members by sieve plates; specialized for the conduction of food materials

Stoma (pl. stomata)

A minute opening plus two guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems, through which gases pass

Tissue

A group of cells of similar structure that performs a special function

Tracheary Element

General term for the conducting elements in xylem, a vessel member or tracheid

Tracheid

An elongated, tapering xylem cell with lignified pitted walls, adapted for conduction and support, and without open end walls; found mainly in ferns and gymnosperms

Trichome

A short filament or "hair" of one or more cells extending from the epidermis

Vascular Bundle

A strand of tissue containing primary xylem and primary phloem (and procambium, if present) and frequently enclosed by a bundle sheath of parenchyma or fibers

Vascular Cambium

Cambium giving rise to secondary phloem and secondary xylem; associated with secondary growth in woody plants

Vessel Element

A conducting cell in the xylem of flowering plants; typically have a lignified secondary cell wall and open end walls, joined end to end by opened perforation plates to form vessels; specialized for water transport

Xylem

A plant tissue consisting of tracheids, vessel members, parenchyma cells, and fibers; specialized for water transport

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