a pardon sold by church officials releasing a person from punishment due to a sin
the Spanish explorers, soldiers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th Century. Led by Cortez.
to cancel or put an end to. Usually related to marriage
a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans for forced labor (slaves) on it.
a group of people who, in 1620, founded the colony of Plymouth in Massachusetts, to escape religious persecution in England.
a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony in Massachusetts Bay in the Early 1600's.
Triangular Trade Network
the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America.
a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, reducing the risk, and then sharing the profit.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods then they bought. A system in which your power was determined by your wealth.
Favorable Balance of Trade
When a country exports more goods then they important. Considered favorable because the country becomes or already is self-sufficient.
A system in which the government and/or ruler (king, queen, emperor, etc.) has complete power and rule over every aspect of living in a specific country or area.
an adoption of the social, political, or economic institutions of western- especially Europe or American- countries. Modernizing a country.
the period of Charles If's rule over England, after the collapse of Oliver Cromwell's government.
logical procedure formulated by Francis Bacon, for gathering information about the natural world, in which experimentation, observation, and questions and used to test hypotheses.
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun. Formulated by Copernicus.
an economic system in which all means of production- land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses- are owned by the people, private property does not exist, and all goods and services are shared equally.
An economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money in business ventures in order to make a profit.
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially.
the application of Charles Darwin's ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies- particularly as justification for imperialist expansion.
The idea that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is, to the people with whom they share a history and culture- rather then to a king or empire.
Germany's military plan at the outbreak of a World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.
Treaty of Versailles
the peace treaty signed by Germany and the Allied Powers after World War I. Was ineffective because it didn't cause a long- term peace; instead it angered Germany because all of the blame and consequences were placed on them.
a political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
an agreement in which nations promise not to attack each other. In World War II, it was signed by the Soviets and the Nazis, but was broken by the Nazis.
the making of concessions and giving into an aggressor in order to avoid war. Used by England and France in dealing with Germany's Aggressive actions.
A policy of avoiding political or military involvement with other countries; the belief that political ties to other countries should be avoided. Used by the United States in the beginning of World War II.
"Night of Broken Glass"- the night of November 9, 1938, on which Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, homes and synagogues throughout Germany.
"lightening war"- a form of warfare in which surprise attacks with fast-moving airplanes are followed by massive attacks with infantry forces.
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a defensive military alliance founded in 1949 by ten Western European nations, United States, and Canada.
a military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and seven Eastern European countries
during the Cold War, the boundary separating the Communist nations of Eastern Europe, from the mostly democratic nations of Western Europe.
First colony in the Americas on the Atlantic Coast, which was named in honor of the English king, James.
a union or association formed for mutual benefit especially between countries or organizations. Two major alliances in World War I were the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria) and the Allies. (Great Britain, France, Russia, and eventually Italy and the United States)
the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial, usually for preventive or political reasons. Used by Japan in World War II.