Hist and Lit Test #1

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1st period - 1839-53 - commercial - influenced by Rossini, Bellini, and especially, Donizetti
• Nabucco (1842)
• Ernani (1844)
• Macbeth (1847
• Rigoletto (1851)
• Il Trovatore (1853)
• La Traviata (1853)

Verdi 1st Period

2nd period - mid-1850s-1871 - influenced by French grand opera
• Les V pres siciliennes (1855) - written for Paris
• Don Carlos (1867) - written for Paris; later "Italianized" (in 1884)
• Un Ballo in Maschera (1859)
• La Forza del Destino (1862)
• Aida (1871)

Verdi 2nd Period

3rd period - 1884-1893 - influenced by Wagner
• Otello (1884)
• Falstaff (1893)

Verdi 3rd Period

Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
Manon Lescaut (1893)
La Bohème (1896)
Tosca (1900)
Madama Butterfly (1904)
La Fanciolla del West (1910)
Gianni Schicchi (1918)
Turandot (1926 - finished after Puccini's death)

Works by Puccini

Puccini, Leoncavallo (Pagliacci), Mascagni (Cavallera Rusticana)

Verismo Composers

1828 - François Auber La Muette de Portici
1829 - Gioachino Rossini Guillaume Tell
1831 - Giacomo Meyerbeer Robert le diable
1835 - Jacques Halévy La Juive
1836 - Giacomo Meyerbeer Les Huguenots

Grand Opera Composers

Berlioz's Operas

Benvenuto Cellini (1838)
Les Troyens (1856-58)
La Prise de Troie
Les Troyens à Carthage

*La Damnation de Faust (1846)

Berlioz Operas

Orphée aux enfers (1858)
La Vie parisienne (1866)
Les Contes d'Hoffmann (1881) - opera, sung throughout

Offenbach operettas

Lyric Opera

Ambroise Thomas (1811-1896)
Mignon (1866)
Hamlet (1868)

Charles Gounod (1818-1893)
Faust (1859)

Lyric Opera Composers

Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
Les Pêcheurs de perles (1863)
Carmen (1875)
(Other examples of French operas dealing with exotic subjects)
Camille Saint-Saëns - Samson et Dalila (1877)
Léo Delibes - Lakmé (1883)
Jules Massenet (1842-1912)
Manon (1884)
Werther (1892)

Later French Opera Composers

Johann Strauss the Younger (1825-1899)
Die Fledermaus (1874)
W.S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900)
HMS Pinafore (1878)
The Pirates of Penzance (1879)
The Mikado (18850
John Phillip Sousa (1854-1932)
El Capitan (1896) and 10 other operettas

Operetta in other countries

L'Italiana in Algeri (1813) - c
Il Barbiere di Siviglia (1816) - c
Otello (1816) - s
Mosè in Egitto (1818) - s
Guillaume Tell (1829) - s

Rossini Operas

Lucia di Lammermoor (1835) - s
La Fille du regiment (1840) - s
L'elisir d'amore (1832) - c
Don Pasquale (1843) - c

Donizetti Operas

La Sonnambula (1831) - s
Norma (1831) - s
I Puritani (1835) - s

Bellini Operas

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