______ carried a barometer up a church tower and a mountain to determine that atmospheric pressure is due to a column of air (1648).
______ used an air pump to determine the inverse relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas. This relationship came to be known as ______'s law (1660-1662).
______ suspended a bowl of water above a beer vat at a brewery and synthesized carbonated water (1767).
______ determined that oxygen combines with materials upon combustion, thus disproving phlogiston theory (1783).
______ determined that chemical reactions in a closed container do not alter total mass. From these observations he establishes the law of conservation of mass (1789).
Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
______ demonstrates that the heat developed by the friction of boring cannon is nearly inexhaustible. This result was presented in opposition to caloric theory (1798).
______ used electrolysis to isolate elemental potassium, sodium, calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium, and chlorine (1807-1810).
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
______ studied reactions among gases and determined that their volumes combine chemically in simple integer ratios (1809).
______ studied very small particles in water under the microscope and observed ______ian motion which was later named in his honor (1827).
______ synthesized the organic compound urea using inorganic reactants, disproving the application of vitalism to chemical processes (1828).
______ measured the rates of effusion for different gases and establishes ______'s law of effusion and diffusion (1833).
Julius Robert von Mayer and James Prescott Joule
______ and ______ measured the heat generated by mechanical work. This established the principle of conservation of energy and the kinetic theory of heat (1842-1843).
______ separated a racemic mixture of two enantiomers by sorting individual crystals, and demonstrated their impact on the polarization of light (1849).
Anders Jonas Ångström
______ observed the presence of hydrogen and other elements in the spectrum of the sun (1862).
______ demonstrated that the decrease in the vapor pressure and freezing point of liquids caused by the addition of solutes is proportional to the number of solute molecules present. This established the concept of colligative properties (1878).
______ studied the conductivity of salt solutions and determined that salts dissociate into ions in water (1884).
______ determined the impact of temperature on reaction rates and formulated the concept of activation energy (1889).
William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh (John Strutt)
______ and ______ isolated the noble gases (1894-1898).
Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie, and Pierre Curie
______, ______, and ______ discovered radioactivity and described its properties (1896).
Mikhail Tsvet (Mikhail Semyonovich Tsvet)
______ separated chlorophyll from other plant pigments using chromatography (1901).
Frederick Soddy and William Ramsay
______ and ______ observed the production of helium from alpha particles during radioactive decay (1903).
Lise Meitner, Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann
______, ______, and ______ observed nuclear fission (1938).
Glenn Theodore Seaborg
______ created and isolated five transuranium elements. He reorganized the periodic table to its current form. (1941-1950).
______-______ experiment demonstrated that organic compounds can arise spontaneously from inorganic ones (1953).
Melvin Calvin and Andrew Benson
______ and ______ delineated the path of carbon in photosynthesis using Chlorella and carbon dioxide labeled with carbon-14 (14CO2) (1945) - (1954).
______ disproved the "tetranucleoide theory" of DNA structure and determines that the composition of double-stranded DNA follows the rule, %A = %T and %G = %C (Chargaff's rule). This discovery was critical to the formulation of the Watson-Crick Model of DNA structure.
______ mixed xenon and platinum hexafluoride leading to the first synthesis of a noble gas compound, xenon hexafluoroplatinate (1962).
Robert Burns Woodward; Roald Hoffman
______ announced the total synthesis of Vitamin B-12 by a team he led (1973). Insights from this work led him and ______ to formulate the ______-______ rules for elucidating the stereochemistry of the products of organic reactions.
______ demonstrated the dideoxy- or chain termination method for determining DNA sequences 1975.
______ demonstrated the polymerase chain reaction, a method for amplifying specific bits of DNA (1983).
Ernest Rutherford; Geiger-Marsden
______ discovered that atoms have a very small positively charged nucleus in the gold-foil experiment, also known as the _______ experiment.