The 4 main goals of psychology are___, ___, ____, and ____.
describe, explain, predict, and change behavoirs
The belief that the unconscious mind has an influence on one's behavior is part of what theory of personality?
A state of self-fulfillment in which we realize our highest potential, acording to Abraham Maslow, is called ____.
The basic units of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves that process, store, and transmit information are the ____.
Anna hears her teacher ask a question she knows the answer to, so she raises her hand so she can speak. Which division of the nervous system was responsible for her hand going up?
somatic nervous system
Beverly had a stroke that has left her with Broca's aphasia even though she can read and write. This suggests her ___ was damaged.
left frontal lobe
Although the left and right hemispheres of the brain are specialezed, they are normally in close communication through the ___.
A visual acuity problem that occurs when the cornea and lens focus an image in front of the retina is called _____.
The 3-chambered, snail-shaped, fluid-filled structure that contains receptors for hearing is the ____.
The tendency of the brain to ignore environmental factors that remain constant is called ____.
The tendency for the environment to be perceived as remaining the same even with changes in sensory input is called ___.
What does functionalism focus on?
How the mind functions to adapt human and nonhuman animals to their environment
focuses on unconscious processes and unresolved past conflicts
The primary goal of psychodynamic psychologists is to ____.
interpret complex meanings hypothesized to underlie people's actions.
Watson adopted ______ concept of conditioning to explain how behavior results from obervable stimuli and observable responses.
B. F. Skinner was _______.
a prominent figure in behavioralism and one of the most influential psychologists of the twentieth century.
emphasizes free will, self-actualization, and human nature as naturally positive and growth-seeking
The two central figures in the development of humanism are _____ and _____.
Carl Rogers; Abraham Maslow
Rogers and Abraham state that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and move toward _____.
likening the mind to a computer that sequentially takes in information, processes it, and then produces a response
Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective
emphasizes genetics and other biological processes in the brain and other parts of the nervous system
focuses on natural selection, adaptation, and evolution of behavior and mental processes
emphasizes social interaction and cultural determinants of behavior and mental processes
unifying theme of modern psychology that incorporates biological, psychological, and social processes
Basic research is typically conducted in universities or research laboratories by researchers interested in ______.
advancing general scientific understanding (knowledge for the sake of knowledge)
reading what has been published in major professional, scientific journals on the subject of interest
participants should be told they are free to decline to participate or to withdraw from the research at any time
restricted use of deception
not telling participants the goal of the study at the beginning of an experiment
explaining the reasonsfor conducting the research and clearing up and misconceptions or concerns on the part of the participant
A ____ group receives the treatment, while a ___ recieves a placebo
experimental group; control group
believing that one's own ethnic group is "correct" and judging others according to this standard
Occurs when experimental conditions influence the participant's behavoir or mental processes
branching neuron structures that receive neural impulses from other neurons and convey impulses toward the cell body
long, tublike structure that conveys impulses away from the neuron's cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
layer of fatty insulation wrapped around the axon of some neurons, which increases the rate at which nerve impulses travel along the axon
provide structural, nutritional, and other support of neurons, as well as communication within the nervous system
affects mood, sleep, appetite, sensory perception, arousal, temperature regulation, pain suppression, and impulsivity
affects learning, memory, dreaming, emotion, waking from sleep, eating, alertness, wakefullness, and reactions to stress
affects emotional arousal, memory storage and metabolism of glucose necessary for energy release
Peripheral Nervous System
all nerves and neurons connecting the central nervous system to the rest of the body
forebrain structure at the top of the brainstem that relays sensory messages to the cerebral cortex
small brain structure beneath the thalamus that helps govern drives (hunger, thirst, sex, and agression) and hormones
Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, and memory
study of the relative effects of heredity and the environment on behavoir and mental processes