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Great Awakening

 It was a religious movement that basically made people think that anyone can be saved from he-double hockey sticks. It doesn't mean that only one gender, race, class, social standing, or age matters in whether you are going to Heaven, or he-double hockey sticks. It was important because it changed many of the people's religious views.

Enlightenment

 It was a movement that focused on science more than religion. Experimentation helped them learn more about the universe. Locke made a book during that time called Two Treatises of Government. It challenged order and stated that "Government should benefit the governed." It was important because many discoveries were made about the universe.

Parliament

 It was an assembly in England made to decide on important decisions. It gave the colonists a sense of self-government, although a governor had the right to veto laws. If the governor strikes down the law, the assembly might not pay him. There were two houses in colonies that modeled Parliament; House of Commons, and the House of Lords. Members of the House of Commons were elected, and members of the House of Lords were not elected nobles, judges, and church officials. It was important because the decisions Parliament made determined the reaction of the colonists.

Rights of Englishmen

 It is rights that colonists expected to have from England. If you were a nobleman or a freeman, the rights that this charter guaranteed that their property could not be seized by government or by an official, "no taxation without representation", they had to have witnesses to be tried, and they could only be punished by a jury that is of the same social class. They were important because the colonists wanted to be sure that they had these rights, so when the British started breaking them the colonists could point out the violation of the agreement.

French and Indian War

 It started in 1754, and it was between the British and Iroquis and the French, Algonquin, and Huron. The French mainly wanted trade, and the British wanted land. The British won, and the French were kicked out of the New World. It was important because it determined who would end up with the land.

Proclamation of 1763

 It was in 1763, and declared that there couldn't be any settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. They did this for a few reasons. The main one was that they were in debt from the French and Indian War, so by not settling in more land, they had less land to protect, which means less money. They also thought that by not settling west of the Appalachian Mountains they would lower their risk of getting into Native American troubles. It was important because if the colonists were to settle west of the Appalachian Mountains, then new problems would've arisen.

Stamp Act

 It was established in 1765, and required the colonists to pay a tax on paper products bought or sold in the colonies. Once you paid a tax on the product, a stamp was placed on it to assure you have paid it. Many protests started saying, "No taxation without representation," meaning that the colonists should have a say in their government. Boycotts were common. Eventually it was repealed. It was important because it angered colonists and allowed them to rise into mutiny.

Boycott

 It is to refuse to buy or to use. By refusing to buy from the British, the colonists kept the British from accomplishing their goal to pay off debt from the French and Indian War. It is important because of the same reason said before.

Townshend Acts

 It was established in 1767, and was a set of rules the colonists were required to do. They taxed imported items, shut down the assembly until colonists agreed to house troops, and gave the British the power of search and seizures. Parts of it were eventually repealed, and much boycott was common. It was important because again, they angered colonists and made the colonists boycott.

Boston Massacre

 The truth is unknown, but we do know that people mocked some British troops, they fired their guns, and five people died. It showed the interaction of colonists and British soldiers.

Tea Act

 It was established in 1773, and it put a tax on tea. British East India Co. was the tea company that allowed the tea to be taxed. It showed how much people liked their tea, and angered the colonists.

Boston Tea Party

 It happened in 1773. It was when some angered colonists dressed up as Indians, and in the middle of the night destroyed tea on a British ship. It shows how violent the colonists got over British rules.

Intolerable Acts

 They were established in 1774. It said that colonists must pay a tax on tea, the representative government would be suspended, British Officials could only be tried in England, and the colonists had to house troops. The importance of it was that the British were relentless to get the money to pay off debt, so they made yet, another act. Also, the colonists were again, furious.

Thomas Jefferson

 He was a man who was a well-respected politician. He also wrote the Declaration of independence.

Manifest Destiny

 The belief that America would extend its territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The belief that America had the right and duty to settle, bring progress, and bring democracy to the west.

Industrial Revolution

 It was a period of time in which machinery took replacement of hand tools. It lasted from the late 1700s to the late 1800s. During this era, new inventions and better transportation were made. This resulted in more employment, expansion west, increased efficiency, increased production, an expansion of the economy, and a demand for more resources.

Louisiana Purchase

 It was land (from the Mississippi River, to the Rocky Mountains) purchased from France in 1803, by Thomas Jefferson. It was sold for 15 million dollars. It was explored by Lewis and Clark.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explored the newly purchased Louisiana Territory. It was explored from 1803-1806. They face hardships such as illness, Indians, animals, and exhaustion.

Oregon trail

 It was a westward route which ran from Independence, Missouri, to the Oregon Territory. Once reporters said that the territory was good to go, people started taking it west. It was a dangerous journey that faced many hardships.

California Gold Rush

 It was when people rushed to California, longing to find gold that had been recently discovered in the Sacramento Valley and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. They miners were also known as "forty-niners." It made San Fransisco a major port city. It allowed California to be admitted as a free state in 1850.

Transcontinental Railroad

 It was a railroad that spanned the entire continent. "In 1862, Congress passed a bill that required two companies to build one. They were the Central Pacific and Union Pacific. The government lent them loans and land. It started in 1863. People preferred mining, so not many people wanted to help build it. They turned to the Chinese. The Golden Spike was the finishing point. The railroad set up standard time.
Effects:
1. Linked the economies of the West and the East
2. Helped people settle in the West
3. Weakened the Native American hold on the West
4. Gave more control of the environment

Monroe Doctrine

 Because James Monroe felt that foreign powers were a threat, he made this statement. It said "the Americas were closed to further colonization." It also said that "any European efforts to reestablish colonies" would be considered dangerous to America's safety.

Compromise of 1850

 Because Congress was split at the decision of California becoming a free state, Senator Henry Clay made a compromise that said:
1. California could become a free state, and slave trade would be abolished in
Washington D.C..

2. Congress could no longer pass laws about slavery with the rest of the territory gained from the War with Mexico. Also, Congress would pass a better law regarding capturing run-away slaves.

Kansas-Nebraska Act

 It was an act that declared the Nebraska territory would be divided into two states, Kansas, and Nebraska, and Americans could vote for them to be free, or slave states. War broke out for three years. It created the Democrat and Republican parties.

Dred Scott

 Dred Scott was a slave whose owner took him to a free state, and then returned him to Missouri. After his owner's death, he went to court and argued that he was a free man because we had lived in a free state. Then, Roger Taney said that he was not a U.S. citizen so he could not sue for his freedom.

Election of 1860

 It was a presidential election between four people of different political views. Lincoln won, and promised to not abolish slavery, although he was opposed to it. After he won, seven Southern states seceded from the Union and formed their own Confederate States of America.

Indian Removal Act (1830)

 It was signed by President Jackson, and it said that "the government would have to negotiate treaties that would require the Indians to move west."

Trail of Tears

 It was the trail the Indians had to take west. The Indians faced many hardships along the way such as illness, exhaustion, lack of food, and bad weather.

Bureau of Indian Affairs

 It is an agency that is responsible for the land that the Indians hold.

Colony

It is place that is established away from the home country for the purpose of settlement or making profit for the home country.

Yellow journalism

 It is a style of writing that has stretched the truth or exaggerated. It is often portrayed in artwork, and other times, writing.

USS Maine

 It was a ship that was sent to Cuba to protect US citizens in Cuba from riots. A month later it exploded, and no one knows the reason why. But, Americans blamed Spain.

Philippines

It is a country near Asia. Theodore Roosevelt sent a fleet of US ships, which took over the Philippines, with the help of Commodore George Dewey. The Philippines were in a good military location, and provided natural resources. It also helped US trade with China. It was important because it had great geographic and military advantages.

Teddy Roosevelt

 He was the 26th President of the United States. He wrote the Roosevelt Corollary. He believed in "Speaking softly, and carrying a big stick." This means that it is helpful to back up your words by physical force.

Platt Amendment

 It was an amendment that gave the US the right to intervene with Cuba's affairs whenever they felt threated.

Anti-Imperialist League

 It was a team of several well-known Americans that believed that Americans shouldn't deny other people the right to govern themselves.

Open Door Policy

 It was a policy that said that no single country should have a monopoly over trade in China. They wanted everyone to have the opportunity to trade in China. It was made to make sure the US could have access and make $$$.

Panama canal

 It was a shortcut that connected the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. It took much time, supplies, and energy to build. It helped the navy, and trade with Asia.

Roosevelt Corollary

 It recognized America as a "policeman of the world" because it gave the US the right to intervene with other nation's affairs in order to maintain stability, or to protect America if threatened.

Imperialism

It is the policy by which stronger nations extend their political, economic, or military power over weaker territories.

Missouri Compromise

 A compromise established in 1820, that said that MO could be a slave state, but Maine would be entered as a free state.

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