Reduces activation energy
Six Major Classes of Enzymes
Transfer H20 via hydrolysis of a substrate
Add or remove H20, ammonia, carbon dioxide or remove to or from a double bond
Causes molecule to change its configuration
Joint two molecules together
Characteristic of an enzyme
1. Works faster with increase energy
2. Can be used over and over
3. Specific for a substrate
4. Always end with "ase"
Indication Prostate Cancer
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Hepatitis A, B, C or drinking --> liver damage
Liver disease and bone cancer
Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)
Muscle disorder, MI
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
Heart, blood and kidney
Breaking down glucose into the pyruvate (aerobic) or lactate (anaerobic)
Formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as lactate, pyruvate, etc
Synthesis glycogen from glucose
Breaking down of glycogen to form glucose
Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose
Lactose: glucose + Galactose
Sucrose: glucose + fructose
Glycogen and Starch
NADH ratio to ATP
2 NADH = 4 ATP outside of mitochondria
2 NADH = 6 ATP inside mitochondria
3. Ethylene Glycol
8 Major Reactions in Kreb's Cycle
Acetyl Co-A + Oxaloacetate --> 6-C (Citrate) --> 5-C (alpha-ketoglutartate) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Succinyl) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Fumarate) + GTP + FADH2 --> 4-C (Oxaloacetate) + NADH
Which reaction does mercury inhibit?
Mercury attach to Pyruvate to prevent Pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA + CO2
How many ATP produce in Glycolysis?
How many ATP produce in Kreb Cycle?
How many ATP produce in Oxidative Phosphorylation?
36 or 38 ATP
Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation
1. Barbituates - stops electron transfer at CoQ
2. Cyanide, CO, Sulfides - stop energy exchange
Where does the Gluconeogenesis occurs?
Liver and somewhat kidney
Where does Glycogen store?
Mainly liver and some in muscle
Which hormone stimulate glycogen breakdown
Epinephrine and Glucagon
Function of Epinephrine in Glycogen Metabolism
1. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
2. Affects mainly in muscle
Function of Glucagon in Glycogen Metabolism
1. Produced in the alpha cell of pancreas
2. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
3. Stimulates gluconeogenesis: making new sugar from pyruvate/AA
4. Affects primarily in liver
Which hormone stimulate glycogen synthesis?
Where does insulin produced at?
Sx of defects in Glycogen Storage
3. Cardiac failure
4. Respiratory failure
6. Exercise intolerance
What is Cori Cycle?
In muscle: Glucose --> Lactate
In Liver: Lactate --> pyruvate --> Glucose
What is Pytalin?
An enzyme in mouth, part of Amylase use to catalyze glycogen and starch