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Enzyme

Reduces activation energy

Six Major Classes of Enzymes

1. Oxidoreductase
2. Transferases
3. Hydrolases
4. Lyases
5. Isomerases
6. Ligases

Hydrolases

Transfer H20 via hydrolysis of a substrate

Lyases

Add or remove H20, ammonia, carbon dioxide or remove to or from a double bond

Isomerase

Causes molecule to change its configuration

Ligases

Joint two molecules together

Characteristic of an enzyme

1. Works faster with increase energy
2. Can be used over and over
3. Specific for a substrate
4. Always end with "ase"

Acid phosphatase

Indication Prostate Cancer

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

Hepatitis A, B, C or drinking --> liver damage

Alkaline phosphatase

Liver disease and bone cancer

Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)

Muscle disorder, MI

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

Heart, blood and kidney

Glycolysis

Breaking down glucose into the pyruvate (aerobic) or lactate (anaerobic)

Gluconeogenesis

Formation of glucose from non carbohydrate sources such as lactate, pyruvate, etc

Glycogenesis

Synthesis glycogen from glucose

Glycogenolysis

Breaking down of glycogen to form glucose

Monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose

Disaccharides

Lactose: glucose + Galactose
Sucrose: glucose + fructose

Polysaccharides

Glycogen and Starch

NADH ratio to ATP

2 NADH = 4 ATP outside of mitochondria
2 NADH = 6 ATP inside mitochondria

Glycolysis inhibitors

Fluoride

NADH inhibitors

1. Ethanol
2. Methonal
3. Ethylene Glycol

8 Major Reactions in Kreb's Cycle

Acetyl Co-A + Oxaloacetate --> 6-C (Citrate) --> 5-C (alpha-ketoglutartate) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Succinyl) + CO2 + NADH --> 4-C (Fumarate) + GTP + FADH2 --> 4-C (Oxaloacetate) + NADH

Which reaction does mercury inhibit?

Mercury attach to Pyruvate to prevent Pyruvate --> Acetyl CoA + CO2

How many ATP produce in Glycolysis?

2 ATP

How many ATP produce in Kreb Cycle?

2 ATP

How many ATP produce in Oxidative Phosphorylation?

36 or 38 ATP

Inhibitors of Oxidative Phosphorylation

1. Barbituates - stops electron transfer at CoQ
2. Cyanide, CO, Sulfides - stop energy exchange

Where does the Gluconeogenesis occurs?

Liver and somewhat kidney

Where does Glycogen store?

Mainly liver and some in muscle

Which hormone stimulate glycogen breakdown

Epinephrine and Glucagon

Function of Epinephrine in Glycogen Metabolism

1. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
2. Affects mainly in muscle

Function of Glucagon in Glycogen Metabolism

1. Produced in the alpha cell of pancreas
2. Stimulate glycogen breakdown
3. Stimulates gluconeogenesis: making new sugar from pyruvate/AA
4. Affects primarily in liver

Which hormone stimulate glycogen synthesis?

Insulin

Where does insulin produced at?

Pancreas

Sx of defects in Glycogen Storage

1. Hepatomegaly
2. Hypoglycemia
3. Cardiac failure
4. Respiratory failure
5. Cirrhosis
6. Exercise intolerance

What is Cori Cycle?

In muscle: Glucose --> Lactate
In Liver: Lactate --> pyruvate --> Glucose
Gluconeogenesis

What is Pytalin?

An enzyme in mouth, part of Amylase use to catalyze glycogen and starch

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