history test february

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Alfred the Great

he became king and made truce with danes so he could rebuild city. 876 truce ended, 878 danesled by guthrum attacked by land and sea, surprised alfread and he had to flee. Alfread then reuilt his kindom and when he had guthrum in the palm of is hand he decided to give him half of his land to stop the arguing. But he made gutrum and all his people convert to Christianity.

Danelaw

the area of England settled by the danes in the 800's

Danegeld

An English national tax collected and used to pay a permanent army of English soldiers to fight Danish Viking invaders-(this "standing army" was called the "fyrd" in the Anglo-Saxon language)

King Canute

king of Denmark, Norway, England. Became king in 1016 and reunited England. Was Danish. Kind and just and popular. First English king to have face on coin. When he died and his son hartha canut died nobody knew who was next in blood line. Civil war erupted because the witan kept picking bad kings.

Edward the Confessor

was appointed when canuted heir died. Brought up in the courts of Normandy in france while Canute reined. Was devout Christian (hence the name) and was not a strong ruler. Was married for 20 years but had no children.

Harold Godwinson(earl of wessex)

(1042-1066) was son of earl godwinson who really ruled thrne for Edward. Was ship wrecked in france. Became king in 1066 when Edward died. Was commander of Edwards army. Edward had promises duke William of Normandy the throne but realized the the English would not let a Normandy rule.william also claimed that Harold promised him the throne. William was jelous so he killed Harold godwinson in battle in october 1066 after his army was tired from already battling other people.

Harald Hardrada- (king of Norway)

when Edward the confessor was ill, he claimed to be heir to throne from Viking decent. When EC was on deathbed he new that hadrada would invade soon so he named godwinson as the king.

Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror)

decended from rollo the Viking. His army was very last to invade and conquore England. Grew up with edward. Edward promised him the throne but when he died he gave the crown to Harold godwinson because the English could not be ruled by a normany. William was angry that he was not given the crown and also claimed that Harold godwinson promised him the crown. In 1064 william captured Harold and made him swear oath to the duke. Harold of course broke it and then William called him an oath braker and declared war. Won the battle of atmford bridge and battle of hastings and was crowned king, Christmas morning 1066.

Battle of Stamford Bridge

duke William and Harold godwinson are preparing for war on the English channel in summer months of 1066. In augaust William wanted to go but couldn't because of wind direction. Harold godwinson was fully prepared for William but delay caused problems. In early September food supplies were running out for godwinson and he was forced to dispatch his army. On trip from isles of wight to London there was a storm and many boats were lost, the channel was undefended. Few days later Harold godwinson heard that Harold hardrada had invaded the east coast of the channel where Williams boats were ported and they helped eachother. Hadrada also gatherd men the Orkney islands and also had tostig (Harold godwins banished brother). Hadrada had 200 warships. On 20 of September they won battle near York. agaisnst northern earls, morcar of nothumbria and Edwin of mercia. 25 of September Harold godwinson faught herald hadrada and won. Both hadrada and tostig were killed but so many were killed that they only needed 24 ships to get back.

Battle of Hastings (on Senlac Hill or Ridge)

right after Harold beat hadrada there was news that William had landed on the southern coast (pevensey in sussex) on September 28. William walked short way to hastings and made camp. Harold walked the 480 mile walk with his men of 7,000, even though William might have less men they were still better equipped. Harolds men waited at the top of a mountain and when Williams men came they showerd them with arrows and kept them at bay. Only when Williams men faked retreating to get harolds men to chase after and then they killed the chasing men. Then there were gaps in harolds lines of men and finally Williams men made there way through the lines and killed Harold and won.

Bayeux Tapestry

famouse tapestrys. A strip of needle works 900 years old with 72 pictures that show how duke William of normandey bacme king. There are latin subtitles, probably ade by English women and orderd to be made by Williams half-brother, bishop odo of Bayeux.

Franks

barabarian tribe that attacked western roman empire (modern day France, named after franks) in the fourth centrury. In 500's and 600's under many kings, they conquerd nabourghs and kingdom grew.

Clovis

king of franks, people were very loyal to him. United Franks, kicked out all none-franks, and Christianized them. Franks lands had a long tradition of being Christian by 800 A.D., the time of Charlemagne. When died, split land between 4 sons.

Charles Martel

(Charles the hammer) ruled the franks as "mayor of the palace", was not prepared to be king since dependents of clovis were still supposed to be king. Grandfather or Charlemagne, defeated the Muslim moors of Spain in 732, thus saving Europe from becoming Muslim.

Battle of Tours in 732 A.D.

a battle that Charles martel (king of franks) fought in France to make sure that the Muslims did not pass through spain into the Frankish Kingdom and convert everyone into Islamic. He kept Christianity alive.

Charlemagne

Who was he and what did he do?(Charles the great) - son of pipin the short who was crowned king by pope after assisting him. Was great military leader, expanded kingdom by conquering. Thought it was his duty to spread Christianity. 800 A.D.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! WAS TURNED INTO KING OF ROME!!!!!!!!!!

Aachen

city in Germany, Charlemagne's Frankish capitol with capitol city and capitol school, very pretty

Pope Leo III

Christmas Day 800 AD; Holy Roman Empire- Christmas day 800 the pope crowned him king as he attended mass.

marches

a march was a futile military border district in Charlemagne's empire. Trusted loyal counts (a noble rank) rules there fiefs in Charlemagne's name in return for wealth and power. They had 3 tasks; 1.protect empire. 2. Collect Charlemagne's taxes. 3. Enforce Charlemagne's laws. THIS IS FEUDALISM!

What became of Charlemagne's empire after his death? Why?

When Charlemagne died, whole kingdom went to surviving son, Louis the pious. Then when Louis died in 840 the fight began again as the empire was divided by 3 sons. Sons hated each other. Charles the bald, Louis the german, and lothar the hly roman empire. When lother died, Charles and Louis took most of his land and then rest was given to Louis if Italy.

Alcuin

winter day in 780, head of school and library in cathedral at York, crossed English channel to send wishes from archbishop of York to pope accidentally met Charlemagne and both hit it off and Charlemagne asked him to study in his court and the two powerful men were united. Charlemagne's tutor and advisor, anglo-saxon

lord

the nobleman that owned an estat in which workers would live on. Title og address for any midevil noble

vassals

noble who receives land from an overlord, in return giving the over lord feudal services. wealthy counts and nobles that were relied opon by the king and dukes to provide advise, gifts, knightes and soldgires, and money in return for royal estates.

fief

the entire land holding of a vassal. the land and people that worked on it, that was provided to vassals

serfs

un-free peasants in debt to his overlord, couldn't leave the land, has less rights than regular peasants. farmers that worked on the land of nobles and other people, could not own land

Three Estates: clergy ; nobility ; commoners

The 3 classes of people in Europe in the Middle Ages. You were born into either the noble or common/peasant class and could not change classes. A few nobles and peasants joined the "clergy." These were the Roman Catholic churchmen. The nobles became high rankink bishops and archbishops (or higher!) and the peasants became monks and priests, generally.

manor

a lords fortified home and all surrounding land, fields, forest, rivers, villages, peasants, roads, bridges, ext. the separate village estates of noblemen that workers lived on. Each was governed by nobleman that owned estate.

bailiff

A lord's farm manager, who also brought peasants into the lord's manor court for violations of manor laws and traditions.

motte and bailey castle

first castle in estate. Castle on top of mound of dirt with a bailey or area lower down with huts and workrooms, surrounded by mote.

castle keep

the tower that stands on top of the motte or mound, to see people that might attack the estate.

crusader castle

had thick round towers to it was harder for battering rams to take them down. Inside walls were built higher so archers could fire right over castle walls. Nmoats were so wide it almost made the castle an island.

Christendom

he system in which Christianity ruled in a pyramid.

Cathedral

a huge church that represented many churches

cathedra

a smaller cathedral

Pope

head of church

Archbishop

lower than pope, some worked and studied in catedrals, some were advisors for their king or duke, they did little work for church.

Bishop

lower than pope and archbishop, some worked and studied in catedrals, some were advisors for their king or duke, they did little work for church.

Parish Priests

looked after local churches and villagers

Bishopric / Diocese

three church distrects this is the middle one it was ruled by the bishop from its cathedral and it obeyed the archbishop

Monasteries, monks

monks were devoted to god and would often take a vow of silence, were also scolars and copied books and such. Lived in monistaries with places to work and sleep.

Friars

were wondering monks who preached of god and were poor

Seven Corporal Acts of Mercy

feeding the hungry;
giving drink to the thirsty
clothing the naked
harbouring the stranger
visiting the sick
ministering to prisoners
burying the dead

pilgrimage

a long, hard journey to see or touch, get in contact with a holy relic such as a body part of a saint and such.

pilgrims

people who went on pilgramidges

tithe

10% church tax

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