How long is equine gestation?
2 tests you can run to predict date of parturition
1. Predict-a-Foal (watch for Ca >40mg/dl)
2. Foal Watch (more sensitive; watch for Ca >200ppm)
What can you do know that the foal is coming soon?
-tied to labia & will dislodge at onset of stage II labor
What type of bedding is used in foaling stall?
When do you bring the mare to that stall?
30 days before to get her accustomed immunologically
Why might you want to bathe mare before she foals?
She needs to be clean
Foal will suckle everything looking for teats
What are the stages of labor?
I: restlessness, sweating, foal moves into position
II: foal delivery w/in 20-30 min
III: delivery of placenta w/in 2 hrs
Why do you want to examine the entire placenta?
-If small piece missing, can lead to metritis & septicemia in mare
-Also, if placentitis detected, need to care extra for foal
When should the foal:
Suckle <20 min
Nurse <3 hrs, then nurse every 15-20 min
Defectate 1-2 hrs
If the foal is taking extra long figuring out how to nurse, what should you do?
milk the mare out & feed it to the foal to make sure he gets the colostrum
Normal USG of foal urine is 1.001-1.002. Why?
Mare's milk is dilute
How long should the foal have the PDA?
2-14 days max
What is the first material that is defecated?
meconium (dk & tarry in appearance)
What do milk feces look like?
If you're worried about the foal's breathing, but the chest sounds fine, what should you do?
Normal sounding chest may be due to compliance of foal thorax
When should you vaccinate the mare prior to foaling?
30 days prior
When do foals start making own immunoglobulins?
What test is used to look for FPT?
Want to see sample close to 800mg/dl
Partial FPT is around 400 mg/dl
What is combined immunodeficiency (CID)? what breed is it commonly seen in?
Foal may get adequate colostrum & seem fine, but won't have enough lymphocytes present to keep up immune system
Will see c/s at 3-4 mo.
Seen in Arabians
Prematurity: <320 days gestation
Dysmaturity: full term foal, but has characteristics of prematurity; associated w/ in utero dz
2 main visual signs of prematurity
Silky hair coat
What determines when the foal is ready?
Foal needs functional HPA axis
What can you see on CBC to tell if premature or not
only 1:1 ratio of neuts to lymphs
normal is 2:1 ratio
What else do you worry about in premature foals?
incomplete ossfication of cuboidal bones
-guarded athletic performance
-confine foal for 2-4 wks & reassess (running around will make it worse)
What will you see w/ patent urachus?
-urine draining from umbilicus
-cellulitis around umbilicus
How will you medically treat patent urachus? surgically treat?
medically: antibiotics to make sure no infection enters through open structures; evaluate DAILY
surgically: removal of affected structures
3 electrolyte abnormalities seen with ruptured bladder
c/s of ruptured bladder
-colic signs (1-3 days of age)
T/F: Creatinine in the abdominal fluid will be same as serum w/ ruptured bladders
Crt will be 2:1 (abdominal fluid:serum)
Why is ruptured bladder an emergency?
Difficulty breathing due to distended abdomen
How will you correct electrolytes & dehydration prior to foal sx for bladder rupture?
0.9% NaCl fluids
needs to be ready in <24 hrs
When would you suspect meconium impaction?
6-24 hrs old
Management of meconium impaction
Restrict milk intake
Warm soapy water enema
6 DfDx for abdominal pain in foals
1. colic due to congenital dz
2. meconium impaction
3. bladder/urinary dz
4. gastric ulcers
5. colonic displacement