Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The four types of muscles identified by different patterns of organization are:

Parallel, convergent, pennate, circular

In a convergent muscle the muscle fibers are:

based over a broad area, but all the fibers come together at a common attachment site

What kind of lever is one in which the fulcrum lies between the applied force and the resistance?

A first-class lever

The effect of an arrangement where a force is applied between the resistance and the fulcrum illustrates the principles operating:

third-class levers

The immovable attachment of muscle to bone or other connective tissue is referred to as the:

origin

what kind of muscles position or stabilize an organ

Extrinsic muscles

The reason we use bicep to describe a particular muscle is:

there are two tendons of origin

A muscle whose contraction is chiefly responsible for producing a particular movement is called

a prime mover

muscles are classified functionally as synergists when:

the movement involves flexion and extension

an example of a parallel muscle with a central body or belly is the:

biceps brachii

Circular muscles that guard entrances and exits of internal passageways are called:

sphincters

the most common levers in the body are classified as:

third class levers

the type of lever in which a small force can move a larger weight is classified as a

second class lever

the stationary, immovable, or less movable attachment of a muscle is called the

origin

a muscle that assists the prime mover in performing a particular action is a

synergist

the term that identifies the region of the body behind the knew is

popliteus

the term that identifies the neck region of the body is

cervics

slender band of collagen fibers

raphe

tendon branches within muscles

multipennate

first-class lever

see-saw

second-class lever

wheelbarrow

stationary muscle attachment

origin

movable muscle attachment

insertion

prime mover

agonist

oppose action of prime mover

antagonist

3 types of muscle tissue

cardiac, smooth, skeletal

example of where cardiac muscle is

heart

type of control in cardiac muscle

involuntary

characteristics of cardiac muscle

striated, single nucleus

where is smooth muscle found

viscera

type of control of smooth muscle

involuntary

smooth muscle consist of:

thorax and abdomen

characteristic of smooth muscle

nonstriated, single nucleus

what is skeletal muscle attached to?

bones

type of control in skeletal muscle

voluntary

characteristics in skeletal muscle

striated, multinucleated

what does muscle contain

muscle bundles (fascicles)

what do fascicles contain

muscle fibers (cells)

what do muscle fibers contain

myofibrils

what do myofibrils contain

myofilaments

myofilaments contain functional units called

sarcomeres

sarcomeres contain

thin and thick filaments

thin filaments contain the protein:

actin

actin forms

I band

i band is attached to

z lines

actin also combines with myosin to form the

a band

thick filaments contain the protein

myosin

myosin forms

h zone

the h zone includes

m line

h zone and m line are parts of the

a band

muscle tissues are highly specialized for producing

contraction

the dense layer of collagen fibers surrounding a muscle is called the

epimysium

the dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bones is known as a

tendon

the cell membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a muscle fiber is called the

sarcolemma

structures that distribute the command to contract within a muscle fiber are called

t tubules

muscle cells contain contractible units called

sarcomeres

because they connect thick and thin filaments, the myosin heads are also known as

cross-bridges

the boundary between adjacent sarcomeres is marked by the

z lines

the conducted charge in the transmembrane potential is called an

action potential

the increase in muscular tension produced by increasing the number of active motor units called

recruitment

active site exposure during the contraction process occurs when calcium binds to

troponin

the interactions between the thick and the thin filaments produce

tension

when the calcium ion concentration in the cytoplasm prolongs the contraction state, making it continuous, the contraction is called

complete tetanus

a muscle producing peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in

incomplete tetanus

an indication of how fine the control of movement can be is determined by the size of the

motor unit

by controlling the number of activated muscle fibers, you can control the amount of tension produced by the

skeletal muscle

the "staircase" phenomenon during which the peak muscle tension rises in stages is called

treppe

a single-stimulus-contraction-relaxation sequence in a muscle fiber is a

twitch

when muscles are actively contracting, the process requires large amounts of energy in the form of

ATP

at peak activity levels, most of the ATP is provided by glycolysis, leading to the production of

lactic acid

a skeletal muscle continues to contract even when mitochondrial activity is limited by the availability of oxygen due to the process of

glycolysis

muscles dominated by fast fibers are sometimes referred to as

white muscle

muscles dominated by slow fibers are sometimes referred to as

red muscles

the amount of oxygen used in the recovery period to restore normal pre-exertion conditions is referred to as

oxygen debt

the amount of time of contractions in cardiac muscle tissues is determined by specialized muscle fibers called

pacemaker cells

the ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called

plasticity

spindle-shaped cells with a single, centrally located nucleus are characteristics of

smooth muscle

in the digestive and urinary systems, the rings of smooth muscle that regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways are called

sphincter

produce body movements

skeletal muscle

muscle bundles

fascicles

broad sheet

aponeurosis

bundle of collagen fiber

tendons

embryonic cells

myoblasts

thick filaments

myosin

synaptic cleft

neuromuscular junction

actin-myosin interaction

cross-bridging

peak tension

contraction phase

measures external tension

myogram

resting tension

muscle tone

creatine phosphate

energy reserve

lowers intracellular pH

lactic acid

red muscles

slow fibers

lactic acid

anaerobic glycolysis

cardiac muscle fibers

intercalated discs

smooth muscle cell

no striations

timing of contractions

pacemaker cells

specialized cells that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue are called

satellite cells

during development, groups of embryonic cells that fuse together to create individual muscle fibers are called

myoblasts

resting tension in a skeletal muscle is called

muscle tone

the ability of a stretched smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called

plasticity

the time when a muscle cell cannot be stimulated because depolarization is occurring is the

absolute refactory period

the condition that results when a muscle is stimulated but cannot contract is referred to as

fatigue

in a sarcomere, the dark bands (anisotropic bands) are referred to as

A bands

a single cranial or spinal motor neuron and the muscle fibers it inntervates comprise a

motor unit

at sufficiently high stimulation frequencies, the overlapping twitches result in one strong, steady contraction referred to as

tetanus

when the muscle shortens but its tension remains the same the contraction is

isotonic

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set