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composition of matter never changes, different shape, form or appearance

explain what it means when matter undergoes a physical change

solid>liquid
ripped paper
broken pencil

give three examples of a physical change

composition of matter always change, new substances are formed by the reorganization of atoms (the making and breaking of bonds)

explain what it means when matter undergoes a chemical change

-change in color
-bubbles or gas given off
-change in energy

give 3 possible clues that a chemical change has taken place

matter can be neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
mass of reactants=mass of products

explain the law of conservation of matter

so no matter is lost or gained

why would you use a closed system when trying to prove the law of conservation of matter?

pure substances
mixtures

what are the 2 main classification groups of matter?

homo- mixed well
hetero- not mixed well
same- made up of elements and compounds+mixtures

explain how a homogeneous mixture differs from a heterogeneous mixture and in what ways are they similar?

atom- smallest part of an element
molecules- smallest part of a compound

what is the difference between an atom and a molecule?

pure substance that cannot be seperated into similar substances

what is an element?

pure sustance that is made up of 2 or more chemically combined elements

what is a compound?

element- oxygen, hydrogen, gold
compound- water, salt, alcohol

give three examples of an element, three examples of a compound

homo- soda, air, coffee
hetero- ocean water, mikes+ikes, smoothie

give 3 examples of a homogeneous mixture and 3 examples of a heterogeneous mixture.

a homogeneous mixture

what is a solution?

characteristic properties

when substances are in a mixture what does each substance keep?

solid
liquid
gas

name the 3 main states of matter

thermal energy

what is the "critical" factor that changes matter from one state to another?

has mass and volume
made up of pure substances and mixtures

what is the definition of matter? What does all matter have in common?

tightly packed
vibrate slightly in place

explain how the atoms and molecules arrange themselves and move in a solid.

close but not too close
free to move in container

explain how the atoms and molecules arrange themselves and move in a liquid

far apart
move quickly and freely

explain how the atoms and molecules arrange themselves and move in a gas

crystalline- repeating pattern, distinct melting point
amorphous- random pattern, no distinct melting point

what is the difference between a crystalline and an amorphous solid?

measurment of the resistance of a liquid to flow
high- syrup, glue
low- water, vinegar

what is viscosity? name 2 liquids with high viscosity and 2 liquids with a low viscosity.

a measurement of the inward pull by particles on the interior of a liquid
high- water

what is surface tension? what liquid demonstrates high surface tension?

melting
melting point

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a solid to a liquid? What is this temperature called?

vaporization
boiling point

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a liquid to a gas? What is this temperature called?

deposition

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a gas to a solid?

condensation

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a gas to liquid?

sublimation

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a solid to a gas?

freezing
freezing point

what term describes the process when matter changes state from a liquid to a solid? What is this temperature called?

anything that flows

what is a fluid?

at constant temperature, the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to it's pressure
(volume decreases as pressure increases)

explain Boyle's Law

at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly related to it's temperature
(Temperature increases as volume decreases)

explain Charles's Law

when gas particles collide with the container wall they exert an outward push

what is pressure?

properties that don't change regardless of size or shape

what is a characteristic property?

boiling point
melting point
density

give three examples of a characteristic property.

vaporization- liquid>gas, whole liquid ex. boiling water
evaporation- liquid>gas, surface of a liquid, ex. puddle dries up

what is the difference between vaporization and evaporation? Give one example for each.

pressure
temperature
volume

what are the 3 characteristic properties that are used to describe gas behavior?

protons, nuetrons, and electrons
protons and nuetrons are found in the nucleus of an atom while electrons are found in the outer energy shells which surround the nucleus of an atom

what subatomic particles make up an atom and where are they located?

postive charge

what charge does a proton have?

no charge. it is nuetral

what charge does a nuetron have?

negative charge

what charge does an electron have?

those electrons involved in forming chemical bonds

what is a valence electron?

heat is transfered from one particle of matter to another without the movement of the matter. only solids move heat by conduction
ex. touching a stove and being burned

what is conduction? Give an example

heat is transfered by the movements of currents within a fluid
ex. cooling down

what is convection? give an example

the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves. unlike conduction and convection, radiation does not require matter to transfer thermal energy
ex. heat from a lightbulb

what is radiation? give an example

thermal energy
thermal energy on the move

what is heat? is it matter or energy?

heat flows from hot/warm>cool
heat continues to flow until equilibrium is reached

in what direction does heat flow? when does heat stop flowing?

gases have no definite shape or volume and their particles are very spread out

why are gases so easy to "manipulate" unlike solids and liquids?

conductor
ex. nickel, copper, aluminum, stainless steel

what is matter called that allows for heat to move through easily?

insulator
ex. rubber, plastic

what is matter called that does not allow for heat to move through easily?

boiling point, melting point, freezing point, density, magnetism

if you had 2 samples of the same substance but of different masses, what are some properties that would remain the same?

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