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Select All progressive era era btwn 1895 and 1920 which included a serie of movements aimed to renovate or restore American society, values, and institutions interest-group politics political system including national organizations such as American Bar Ass'n, National American Women Suffrage Assn, etc. These groups usually acted independently of either of the established parties and therefore made politics more fragmented and issue-focused than earlier eras muckrakers journalists who fed public taste for scandal and sensation by exposing social, economic, and political wrongs direct primaries progressive proposal in which people would directly nominate candidates rather than doing so through party caucuses initiative reform advocated by progressives which permitted voters to propose new laws referendum reform advocated by progressives which enabled voters to accept or reject a law recall reform advocated by progressives which allowed voters to remove offending officials and judges from office before their terms expired old guard republicans politicians who opposed progressives and insisted that progress would result only from maintaining the profit initiative and an economy unfettered by gov't regulation robert lafollette most forceful progressive governor from WI. Initiated reform program including direct primaries, more equitable taxes, and regulation of railroad rates. Elected to senate and displayed ability to approach reform scientifically while still exciting people with moving rhetoric southern progressivism resembled that of other regions; urban and middle class in nature, included strategeis of railroad utility regulation, factory safety, pure food and drug legislation, moral reform. Tainted with racism 17th amendment provided for direct election of U.s. senators 18th amendment outlawed manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol moral reform programs instituted to improve human behavior in the areas of drinking habits and sexual behavior. led to 18th amendment and Mann act progressive education reformed education based on john dewey's books which promoted education based on real-life problems. The idea that children should learn through direct experience progressive legalism idea embraced by those in legal profession that placed new emphasis on experience and scientific principles, and that social reality should influence legal thinking social science the study of society and its institutions the social gospel led by protestant leaders to counter brutality of competitive capitalism by applying christian principles to worldly matters eugenics belief that human character and habits could be inherited and that society had an obligation to restrict the reproduction of "inferior" people booker t washington african american educator and progressive leader who founded tuskegee institute and urged his Atlanta Compromise. Regarded by whites as representative of all blacks atlanta compromise strategy by booker t washington that urged blacks to work hard, acquire property, and prove they are worthy of respect rather than fight for political rights WEB DuBois spokesperson for niagra movement, outspoken critic of atlanta compromise niagra movement 1905 convention of "anti-bookerites" near Niagra falls. they pledged militant pursuit of rights such as unrestricted voting, economic opportunity, integration, and equality before the law NAACP National Ass'n for the Advancement of Colored Ppl. Formed from members of niagra conference and liberal writers. aimed to end racial discrimination and obtain rights by pursuing legal redress in the courts the women movement movement of middle-class women striving to move beyond the household and into social welfare activities, higher education, and paid labor the feminist movement movement of feminists (those explicitly conscious of their identitiy as women) to emphasize women's rights and self-development. Foucused primarily on economic and social independence margaret sanger led birth-cont'l movement to support women's "sex rights." attracted support form socialist party in distributing info. about contraception to help poor women prevent unwanted pregnancies. Formed American Birth Control League (now planned parenthood) the suffrage movement movement of women, led by harriot stanton blatch, toward women's right to vote Carrie Chapman Catt Leader of NWSA who contributed to suffrage movement through persistent letter-writing and publications Alice Paul Leader of AWSA who led spirited meetings and militant marches to heighten public awareness for suffrage 19th amendment nat'l amendment for women suffrage. Gained by convincing legislators that women could shoulder public responsibilities, as they demonstrated in wartime contributions theodore roosevelt progressive president - most powerful since lincoln. believed, when it came to economics, that the government should act as an umpire by deciding when big business was good and when it was bad. also believed in white superiority and in conservation over preservation northern securities act broke up jp morgan's northern securities company through a court decision hepburn act gave icc more authority to set rr freight and storage rates, though it allowed courts to overturn rate decisions The Jungle fictionalized expose by upton sinclair of chicago meatpacking plants. led to meat inspection act meat inspection act reinforced principle of gov't regulation, requiring that gov't agents monitor quality of processed meat. The gov't, rather than meatpackers, had to finance inspections and meatpackers could appeal adverse decisions in court pure food and drug act prohibited dangerously adulterated food and addressed abuses in patent medicine industry. required that labels list ingredients gifford pinchot created u.s. forest service, advocated scientific management of nation's woodlands william howard taft president backed by roosevelt who was sympathetic to reform and prosecuted more trusts than roosevelt. Believed in strict restraint of the law. under his rule, progressive and conservative wings of republican party drifted apart 16th amendment legalized federal income tax bull moose party progressive party (branch of republican party) led by lafollette and roosevelt. nominated roosevelt for president woodrow wilson progressive president who expanded gov't's regulatory powers over business and expanded banking regulation. most known for direction of u.s. during wwi new nationalism promised by roosevelt to voters; nat'l unity in which gov't would coordinate and regulate economic activity. would not destroy big business but would est. regulatory commissions of experts to protect citizens' interests and ensure wise use of economic power new freedom promised by wilson to voters; said concentrated economic power threatened individual liberty and monopolies had to be broken up. would not, however, restore laissez faire. would enhance gov't authority to protect and regulate. stopped short of advocating cooperation between business and gov't inherent in roosevelt's new nationalism clayton anti-trust act tried to prevent corporate abuses by expanding gov't's regulatory powers. corrected deficiencies of Sherman Anti-trust act by outlawing monopolistic practices such as price discriminationand interlocking directories (management of 2 or more competing companies by same executives) federal trade commission investigate companies and issue cease-and-desist orders against unfair trade practices. accused companies could appeal ftc orders in court. represented another step toward consumer protection federal reserve act of 1913 expanded regulation of banking by establishing 1st central banking sys. since 1836. intended to break power that powerful banking syndicates held over money supply and credit jane addams founder of hull house, advocate of workers' rights, women's rights, and advancement of african americans hull house settlement house in Chicago founded by Jane addams that offered new opportunities for the poor expansionism ... imperialism ... foreign policy elite ... racial hierarchy ... william h seward senator and secretary of state who argued for American expansion. Most famous for his purchase of alaska purchase of alaska u.s. purchase of what is now alaska, advocated by seward, for 7.2 mil. called "seward's icebox" or "seward's folly" tranatlantic cable underwater telegraph cable which linked european and american telegraph networks pan-american conference of 1889 ... navalism ... captain alfred t. mahan ... annexation club group of white oligarchy which pressed for annexation of hawaii. caused arrest and confinement of queen who gave authority to u.s. the maine u.s. battleship ordered to cuba during spanish riots to demonstrate u.s. concern and protect citizens. upon its explosion, u.s. accused spain commodore george dewey naval commander who led u.s. squadron on attack in Spanish in phillippines, destroying spanish fleet and seizing manila bay treaty of paris, 1898 armistice to end war. provided that 1. sp. would give cuba ind., 2. sp. would cede philippines, cuba, and guam to u.s. and 3. u.s. would give $20 mil to spain anti-imperialist arguments ... imperialist arguments ... boxer rebellion ... Open door policy policy which preserved China's territorial integrity and respected principle of equal trade opportunities dollar diplomacy the use of private funds to serve american diplomatic goals and at the same time to garner profits for u.s. financiers platt amendment ... panamanian revolution ... panama canal ... roosevelt corollary ... anglo-american reapproachement ... assassination at sarajevo killing of heir to a-h throne on 6/28/14 by serbian nationalist. sparked wwi wilson's proclamation of neutrality proclamation by u.s. president that america would remain a neutral nation in wwi, treating allies and central powers equally wilsonianism cluster of wilson's ideas consisting of traditional american principles and ideology of internationalism and exceptionalism. Central tenet: only u.s. could lead convulsed world into new, peaceful era of inobstructed commerce, free-market capitalism, decmocratic politics, and open diplomacy neutral rights rights held by neutral nations to trade freely international law wartime rule obeyed by all nations. related etiquette of naval attacks luisitania british passenger ship struck down by german u-boats while carrying contraband. killed 128 americans unrestricted submarine warfare german policy under which all vessels would be attacked within war zone zimmerman telegram telegram from ger. to mex. intercepted by g.b. Stated that if mex. joined military alliance against u.s., ger. would help mex. regain territory lost to u.s. today, historians question its existence. jeanette rankin first congresswoman who voted against war. declared peace was women's responsibility and men feel cowardly if they oppose war selective service act raised u.s. army. required that all males 21-30 (later changed to 18-45) register for army general john j. pershing head of american expeditionary forces, insisted that u.s. troops remain independent army trench warfare military tactic by which armies fought from trenches. weapons: machine guns, poison gas. led to stalemate War industries board largest superagency headed by baruch. designed as clearing house to coordinate nat'l economy, it made purchases, allocated supplies revenue act of 1916 began process of taxation to pay for war by raising surtax on high incomes and corporate profits, imposed fed. tax on large estates, and significantly increased tax on munitions manufacturers war revenue act of 1917 provided for more steeply graduated income tax, corporate income tax, excess-profits tax, and increased excuse taxes on alcohol, tobacco, and luxury items. While these taxes curbed excessive corporate profiteering, several loopholes tempted the unscupulous nat'l war labor board est. by wilson to discourage strikes and lockouts as well as to urge managements to negotiate with existing unions red summer of 1919 period of violent race riots tha rocked 2 doz. cities and towns. worst in chicago where 38 ppl died influenza pandemic worldwide epidemic of the flu which was first reproted in Cam Funston, KS, before it spread to other U.S. cities and europe. Resulted in 40 mil. deaths worldwide, 700,000 in U.S. committee on public information led by journalist george creel, acted as propaganda agency to win support for the war espionage acts passed during wwi - forbade false statements designed to impede draft or promote military insubordination. banned treasonous materials from mail. sedition acts passed during wwi - outlawed obstruction of war bond sale and use of abusive, disloyal, or profane language to describe gov't or anything associated with it. civil liberties bureau est. by roger baldwin (forerunner of American civil liberties union) defended rights of those accused under espionage and sedition acts red scare sparked by rush of labor strikes seeking to raise wages to meet rising prices and to return wartime bargaining rights. when bombs were sent to prominent Americans on a day of celebration for workers around the world, people assumed that anarchists and others bent on destruction of U.S way of life were responsible. labor strikes of 1919 series of stikes seeking to raise wages to meet rising prices and to meet wartime bargaining rights which sparked red scare. over 4 mil. laborers were involved in strikes palmer raids attorney general mitchell palmer staged illegal raids on meeting halls and homes of alleged communists. 4,000 jailed and many deported wilson's 14 points 14 reccommendations for international powers which served as foundation for peace talks. summarized international view of stable world order based on american principles paris peace conference conference at versailles where "big 4" est. peace treaty which included german reparations principle of self-determination principle which states that nations should rule themselves. pro-independence tenet mandate system adminstered by league of nations to break up empires, est. independence of other nations, and transfer control of a country from one nation to another the league of nations group of nations bound to protect one another and common intrests. although promoted by wilson, u.s. senators refused to join league article x of league covenant collective-security provision within league covenant - morally bound league members to fight on the side of an attacked member treaty of versailles treaty which attempted to form league of nations irreconcilables group of mostly republicans who opposed any treaty whatsoever collective security security provided by permanent alliances with other nations. demonstrated in article x of league covenant unilateralism policy of not est. permanent political ties. traditional nonalignment promoted freedom of choice.