Pathology Ch 3 - Respiratory System

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List 2 major functions of the respiratory system:

*Oxygenation of blood
*Removal of body's waste products in the form of carbon dioxide

The lower respiratory system consists of:

*Trachea
*Bronchi
*Bronchioles

The lower respiratory system is responsible for ________ from the upper respiratory system.

conducting air

The tracheobronchial tree is lined with a __________.

mucous membrane

The tracheobronchial tree contains __________ projections called cilia.

hairlike

______ prevent dust and foreign particles from reaching the lungs.

Cilia

When cilia permits particles to enter the respiratory system (due to damage), the particles _________ to produce a disease process.

proliferate

External respiration occurs in the ____

alveoli (lung parenchyma)

Oxygen attaches to the __________ molecules in the red blood cells to circulate to various tissue throughout the body; the is considered ________ respiration.

hemoglobin; internal

The _____ and ______ muscles are stimulated to contract, causing the lungs to ______.

diaphragm; intercostal; increase/expand (fill with air)

Pulmonary circulation provides the _____ with oxygenated blood.

body

The inner lining surrounding and attached to the lung wall is the _________.

visceral pleura

Irregular thickening of linear chest markings due to excessive viscous mucus is the radiographic appearance in _________.

cystic fibrosis.

consists of lipoproteins and provides the proper surface tension in the alveoli, allowing full external respirations

surfactant

____ and _____ neck images best demonstrate a rounded thickening of the epiglottic shadow in the disorder called Epiglottitis.

soft tissue (AP) and lateral

characterized by the cause and location of the disease process in the lung

Pneumonia

A lung abscess appears as a _______ density characteristically having a ______________ periphery.

spherical; hazy, poorly defined

A bacterium that is rod-shaped with a waxy coat allowing it to live outside the body for an extended time

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Pulmonary infiltration(s), most commonly in the periphery of the parenchyma, that may resemble pneumonia are the radiographic appearance of __________.

Coccidioidomycosis

Respiratory syncytial virus is responsible for the increased rate of _________ infections because of the ability of the virus to persist on surfaces for many hours.

nosocomial

Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma are examples of:

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

In ________, the lung reacts to occupational exposure of silica, which results in extensive fibrosis.

Silicosis

____________ causes peripheral atelectasis and pneumonitis due to bronchial obstruction.

Bronchial adenoma

An abnormal vascular communication between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein is a pulmonary _________ _________.

arteriovenous fistula

abnormal communication between the pulmonary arteries and veins

pulmonary arteriovenous fistula

air-bronchogram is the radiographic appearance due to immature lung development

hyaline membrane disease

arises from thrombi in the deep venous system

pulmonary emboli

condition of a collapsed lung

atelectasis

consolidation of the lung parenchyma sometimes causing an air-bronchogram

pneumonia

diseases caused by prolonged occupational exposure to irritating particulates causing interstitial inflammation

pneumoconiosis

fungal infection of the lung

pulmonary mycosis

hereditary disease noted for secreting excessive viscous mucus by all endocrine glands

cystic fibrosis

most common type of lung cancer typically arising in the major bronchi

squamous carcinoma

necrotic area of pulmonary parenchyma containing purulent material

lung abscess

neoplastic growth that is the result of an inflammatory process

benign granuloma

permanent irreversible obstructive and destructive changes in the acini

emphysema

primary carcinoma originating in the mucosa of the bronchial tree

bronchogenic carcinoma

pus in the pleural cavity

empyema

several conditions in which chronic obstruction of the airways leads to ineffective external respiration

COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

thin fibers embed in the lung, causing major fibrosis, and may result in mesothelioma

asbestosis

this disease has four primary radiographic appearances: Infiltrates, Hilar enlargement, Ghon lesions, and Pleural effusion

Tuberculosis

viral inflammatory obstruction of the subglottic area of the trachea

croup

virus causing necrosis of the respiratory epithelium in the lower respiratory system

Respiratory syncytial virus

widespread narrowing of airways caused by an increased response of the tracheobronchial tree to various allergens

asthma

breathing that supplies oxygen-rich air to the alveoli

inspiration

carbon dioxide regulates the respiration center in this part of the brain

medulla

cluster of alveoli

acinus

consists of nasopharynx, oropharynx and larynx

upper respiratory system

extremely thin-walled sacs surrounded by blood capillaries

parenchyma

fluid in the pleural space

pleural effusion

membrane attached to the inner chest wall (thoracic cavity)

parietal pleura

oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange due to cellular metabolism

internal respiration

oxygenates blood and removes body waste such as carbon dioxide

lower respiratory system

prevents dust and foreign particles from reaching the lungs

cilia

provides the lung tissue with oxygen and nourishment

bronchial circulation

respiratory muscles relaxing causes the lungs to expel air

expiration

List parts of Upper Respiratory System:

*Larynx
*Oropharynx
*Nasal Pharynx
*Pharynx

List the parts of the Lower respiratory system:

*Trachea
*Lungs
*Bronchi
*Bronchioles
*Alveoli

lung is surrounded by this double-walled membrane

pleura

What is it called when excess fluid collects between the two layers of the pleura?

pleural effusion

Diagnostic tests for the respiratory system include:

*X-ray
*Bronchoscopy
*Tissue biopsy
*Blood test
*Pulmonary function test
*Sputum cultures

List some imaging considerations for chest x-ray:

*Technical factors (110-120kvp)
*Artifacts
*Shield
*Move scapulas out of way
*Breathing technique
*10 posterior ribs
*Symmetrical clavicles
*History
*Markers

Where should an Endotracheal tube be placed?

5 to 7 cm ABOVE the carina

What is the proper placement for the tip of a central venous pressure line?

in the distal superior vena cava just below the right atrium

the lack of the respiratory system to exchange gases

respiratory failure

hereditary disease that is due to an abnormal gene in chromosome #7

Cystic fibrosis

List 4 treatments for Cystic fibrosis:

*Antimicrobial drugs
*Bronchodilators
*Respiratory physical therapy
*DNase (drug)

What is the radiographic appearance of Hyaline membrane disease?

finely granular appearance, "ground glass" and atelectasis

an inflammation (irritation) without infection

Pneumonitis

an inflammation with infection

Pneumonia

type of pneumonia that affects mostly the alveoli

Interstitial pneumonia

Which side is mostly affected in Aspiration Pneumonia? Why?

the right side, because the bifurcation of the lungs is straighter and wider on the right side

caused by aspiration of esophageal or gastric contents

Aspiration Pneumonia

List 3 ways to contact Anthrax:

*Cutaneous
*Inhalation
*Injestion

granular tissue growth

granulomas

What does PPD stand for?

Purified Protein Derivative

How does Tuberculosis spread?

by droplets in the air

Why is the lordotic projection useful in evaluation of Tuberculosis?

to get the clavicles out of the way in order to check for lesions that are most common in the apical region

Name 2 tests for Tuberculosis:

*MANTOUX test
*PPD test

Name 2 types of Pulmonary Mycosis:

*Histoplasmosis
*Coccidiodomycosis

What is another name for Histoplasmosis?

Darling's Disease

What percentage of infants are affected by RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)?

Approx. 50%

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