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True

T/F: Every process that occurs during network communications can be associated with a layer of the OSI Model.

True

T/F: Among the Session layer's functions are establishing and keeping alive the communications link for the duration of the session, keeping the communication secure, synchronizing the dialogue between the two nodes, determining whether communications have been cut off, and, if so, figuring out where to restart transmission, and terminating communications.

False

T/F: The primary function of protocols at the session layer is to translate network addresses into their physical counterparts and decide how to route data from the sender to the receiver.

True

T/F: Addressing is a system for assigning unique identification numbers to devices on a network.

False

T/F: Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the Presentation layer of the OSI Model.

Standards

____ are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria that stipulate how a particular product or service should be designed or performed.

ANSI

____ is an organization composed of more than a thousand representatives from industry and government who together determine standards for the electronics industry and other fields, such as chemical and nuclear engineering, health and safety, and construction.

EIA

____ is a trade organization composed of representatives from electronics manufacturing firms across the United States.

ITU

The ____ is a specialized United Nations agency that regulates international telecommunications, including radio and TV frequencies, satellite and telephony specifications, networking infrastructure, and tariffs applied to global communications.

IAB

____ is a technical advisory group of researchers and technical professionals interested in overseeing the Internet's design and management.

IP

Addresses used to identify computers on the Internet and other TCP/IP-based networks are known as ____ addresses.

protocol data units

The Application layer separates data into ____ or discrete amounts of data.

application

The top, or seventh, layer of the OSI Model is the ____ layer

application

Through ____ layer protocols, software applications negotiate their formatting, procedural, security, synchronization, and other requirements with the network.

presentation

Protocols at the ____ layer accept Application layer data and format it so that one type of application and host can understand data from another type of application and host.

session

Protocols in the ____ layer coordinate and maintain communications between two nodes on the network.

checksums

____ are added to data at the source and verified at the destination.

segments

Transport layer protocols break large data units received from the Session layer into multiple smaller units, called ____.

sequencing

____ is a method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data.

frame

A(n) ____ is a structured package for moving data that includes not only the raw data, or "payload," but also the sender's and receiver's network addresses, and error checking and control information.

data link

The primary function of protocols in the ____ layer, is to divide data they receive from the Network layer into distinct frames that can then be transmitted by the Physical layer.

MAC

____ addresses contain two parts: a Block ID and a Device ID.

physical

The ____ layer is the lowest, or first, layer of the OSI Model.

physical

Protocols at the ____ layer accept frames from the Data Link layer and generate voltage so as to transmit signals.

physical

Connectivity devices such as hubs and repeaters operate at the ____ layer.

flow control

____ is the process of gauging the appropriate rate of transmission based on how fast the recipient can accept data.

ISO

The _________ goal is to establish international technological standards to facilitate global exchange of information and barrier-free trade.

application

_____________ layer services facilitate communication between software applications and lower-layer network services so that the network can interpret an application's request and, in turn, the application can interpret data sent from the network.

connectionless

Transport layer protocols that do not establish a connection before transmission and make no effort to ensure that data is delivered error-free are called ____________________ protocols.

reassembly

____________________ is the process of reconstructing the segmented data units.

fragmentation

At the Network layer, ____________________ ensures that packets issued to the network are no larger than the network's maximum transmission unit size.

ITU

Provides developing countries with technical expertise and equipment to advance those nations' technological bases.

router

Device that connects network segments and direct data.

ISP

A business that provides organizations and individuals with access to the Internet and often, other services, such as e-mail and Web hosting.

sequencing

A method of identifying segments that belong to the same group of subdivided data.

ICANN

Responsible for IP addressing and domain name management.

checksum

A unique character string that allows the receiving node to determine if an arriving data unit matches exactly the data unit sent by the source.

standards

Define the minimum acceptable performance of a product or service.

TCP

A connection-oriented protocol.

IAB

Responsible for Internet growth and management strategy, resolution of technical disputes, and standards oversight.

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