FDR's Wife and New Deal supporter. Was a great supporter of civil rights and opposed the Jim Crow laws. She also worked for birth control and better conditions for working women
"Bonus Marcher" and Hoovervilles
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash -- camps built outside of major cities by people who had lost their homes during the great depression The name is because the people blamed pres. Hoover foe their situation
The hundred Days
The first 3 months of FDR's presidency, FDR proposed and Congress passed 15 bills. These measures, known as the First New Deal, had three goals: relief, recovery, and reform. FDR wanted to provide relief from the immediate hardships of the depression and achieve a long-term economic recovery. He also instituted reforms to prevent future depressions.
Civilian Conservation Corps
A New Deal program created by the Unemployment Relief Act. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million young men. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.
National Recovery Administration
Designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. The administration made a maximum amount of hours of labor, minimum wages, and gave labor union members the right to choose their own representatives.
Tennessee Valley Authority
(FDR) 1933, , A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil., New Deal program that built dams to control flooding and provide electrical power
The Social Security Act
It provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to retirees were financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
short period during FDR's second term in which unemployment rose from 7 million to 10 million, when social security taxes were collected, more money was drained out of the economy. The recession ended after FDR asked for an increase of the WPA workforce by 1.5 million and 3 billion for recovery and relief
Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Huey Long; Father Coughlin; Francis Townsend
Louisianna Senator who opposed FDR's New Deal and came up with a , "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families--a critic of the New Deal; created the National Union for Social Justice; wanted a monetary inflation and the nationalization of the banking system--critic of the New Deal; felt that the New Deal did not do enough for the elderly
A New York social worker who headed the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Civil Works Administration. He helped grant over 3 billion dollars to the states wages for work projects, and granted thousands of jobs for jobless Americans.
Federal securities Act
required corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings and made them liable for any misrepresentations
John L. Lewis
United Mine Workers of America leader who organized the coal miners strike; wanted workers' civil rights, and the right to bargain collectively
Nine young black men between the ages of 13 to 19 were accused of of raping two white women by the names of Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. All of the young men were charged and convicted of rape by white juries, despite the weak and contradictory testimonies of the witnesses
extraordinary commissioner of Indian affairs who was committed to the cause of Indians afterexposure to tribal cultures in New Mex. promoted legislation to reduce pressure of assimilation such as Indian Reorganization Act
Congress of Industrial Organizations
Union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955. Popularized the sit-down strike
Memorial Day Massacre
labor strike 1937 at the Republic Steel Co. of South Chicago that ended violently when the small steel companies, unlike US Steel, struck back, memorial day, 1937, police broke a stride, 10 killed, 84 wounded
The Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; fell from power in 1938.
an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic Party in the mid 20th century. He was a socialist in the early 1930s; he became a leading liberal and supporter of the New Deal coalition.
Black U.S. track athelete who embarrassed Hitler at 1936 olympics by winning 4 gold metals
Works Progress Administration
(FDR) WPA 1935, , May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Public Works Administration
Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
(FDR) A 1935 law, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations. , Made sure workers were treated and payed well and not getting abused by their business. this law created the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law and supervise shop elections