Left side of heart
controls the flow of blood to all tissues and cells in the body
where oxygen and nutrients are delivered and metabolic wastes are taken away
oxygenated blood (yellow)
Right side of heart
sends blood to the lungs, where oxygen stored in red blood cells is replenished and carbon dioxide, a metabolic waste, is released
de-oxygenated blood (blue)
Atrioventricular (coronary) groove
groove between atria and ventricles
provide place for veins and arteries to fit
Anterior interventricular groove
travels toward the apex along the anterior surface of the heart
comes out of left ventricle
carries oxygenated blood
gives rise to aortic arch
first segment of aorta
where the ascending aorta arches
gives off three branches: brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery, and left subclavian artery
cat only has two arteries branching off
What structure forms a complete circle around the heart and forms a border between the atria and ventricles?
Posterior interventricular groove
on back side where arteries and veins sit
descends toward the apex from the coronary sulcus and forms a border between the atria and ventricles
What is the function of the fossa ovalis?
When this structure does not close properly, what happens?
blocks off foramen oval
mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
A malformation in this structure can lead to?
change in blood pressure
take blood from the atrium to the ventricles
open and close as a result of pressure differences between the atria and ventricles during the pumping action of the heart
thin, serous membrane (lubricated)
made of connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium
made of cardiac muscle fibers
separated by connective tissue containing capillaries and nerves
thin serous membrane with connective tissue and simple squamous epithelium
aka visceral pericardium
inflammation caused by a bacterial infection of the endocardium
symptoms: heart failure, stroke, heart attack
Right coronary arteries
travels to the right along the coronary sulcus
Curves around the right side and continues onto the posterior surface
Left coronary arteries
travels to left side, along coronary sulcus and posterior to the pulmonary trunk
becomes circumflex artery and anterior interventricular artery
Posterior interventricular artery
descends toward the apex along the posterior interventricular sulcus
Big vein in back of heart
Smaller circle in right atrium draining deoxygenated blood, drains in right atrium
Large dilated sac that runs along the coronary sulcus and empties into the right atrium
It drains most of the venous blood from the heart wall
Middle cardiac vein
By posterior interventricular sulcus
Drains into coronary sinus as it approached the base of the heart
Small cardiac vein
by marginal artery
wraps around right side of the heart
drains into the coronary sinus
What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?
Bronchial arteries are found in the lungs
Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood, bronchial arteries carry oxygenated blood
Explain why all the major arteries in the systemic circulation have a deep position in the body.
They contain a lot of blood and need to be kept from being punctured
Trace a drop of blood starting at the right atrium
Superior and inferior vena cava--right atrium--tricuspid valves--right ventricle--pulmonary semilunar valve--pulmonary trunk--right and left pulmonary arteries--lungs--O2 pulmonary veins--left atrium--bicuspid valve (mitral valve)--left ventricle--aortic semilunar valve--ascending aorta--body
Explain varicose veins. Why does a pregnant women or an individual with an abdominal tumor have a greater risk of developing varicose veins?
Valves preventing back flow do not work properly, creating blood pooling. Increased mass and constricted blood flow.
Narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, increases TPR
Widening of blood vessels resulting from relaxation of muscular wall of the vessels, works to decrease TPR
Atria vs Ventricles
Atria is superior and recieves blood while the ventricles are inferior and discharges blood
left and right coronary arteries
branch off ascending aorta near origin
supply blood to the heart wall
Right and left iliac arteries
supply blood to gluteal muscles, organs in pelvic cavity, and hindlimb
supplies upper and lower jaws, muscles of mastication, teeth, nasal cavity, and temporal and parietal bones
What is the functional difference between pulmonary arteries and bronchial arteries?
Pulmonary takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs
Bronchial takes oxygenated blood from the lungs
Superior and inferior vena cava
empties into right atrium, receives blood from head, neck upper extremities, and thorax
formed by left and right brachiocephalic veins
merges with internal jugular vein to form brachiocephalic vein, drains blood from the brain
accumulation of fatty deposits in the tunica intima of arteries, damage and calcification of tunica media, leads to heart disease and stroke
When you flex your arm for an extended period of time it "falls asleep" blocking what major artery in your arm?
What is collateral circulation and why is it clinically significant?
serves as alternate routes of blood supply, grow and enlarge in someone with heart disease or other blood vessel disease and form a detour around blockage
represents the closure of the atrioventricular valves (bi and tricuspid valves), during ventricular systole, it is a long, loud sound
represents the closure of the semilunar valves during ventricular diastole
it is a short, sharp sound
non-contractile cardiac fibers
specialized to generate and propagate action potentials or depolarization waves within the heart muscles
steady pace at which it generates and sends depolarization waves to the atria and the AV node
located in the right atrium, close to the atrioventicular opening; on its own, it is capable of generating action potentials only at a rate of about 55 times per minute so it follows the sinus rhythm of SA
bundle of His
a short narrow bundle of conduction fibers from AV node, located in the interatrial septum
microscopic fibers from the bundle branch, that take the depolarization waves to the myocardial fibers
incomplete closure of the AV valves can cause regurgitation or backflow of blood into the atria
Why is the brachial artery used to measure arterial blood pressure?
it is at the same level of the heart, so the effects of gravity are negligible
If a person's blood pressure is 140/90, what do the two numbers mean?
systolic pressure is 140 mm Hg and diastolic pressure 90 mm Hg
Of the two blood pressure readings, which is considered to be more critical and why?
diastolic pressure, because it suggests that damage, due to arteriosclerosis, has occurred to the arterial walls
Why do athletes have slower pulses
Exercise training has increased the volume of oxygen that can be delivered to muscles per heart beat, the heart needs to beat less to do the same job
indicates depolarization for the atria just prior to the beginning of atrial contraction or systole
specialized connective tissue with a liquid matrix called plasma in which the blood cells are suspended
medium of transport of molecules and ions within the body
no nucleus, have hemoglobin protein, carry oxygen to tissues and bring back carbon dioxide
Red blood cells, RBCs
WBCs, white blood cells
have a nucleus
five types: eocinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil
fewer and larger than RBCs
come from megakaryocytes
Function: clotting, repair damaged blood vessels
number value that records percentage of blood composed of red blood cells, estimated carrying capacity of oxygen
What is anemia?
reduction in oxygen carrying capacity, low hematocrit level, low iron, low hemoglobin
What is the difference between serum and plasma?
Plasma is the part of the blood that contains both serum and clotting factors
Serum is the part of the blood that remains once the clotting factors like fibrin have been removed
where WBCs can pass through walls and blood vessels in order to enter surrounding tissues to get to the infection
characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from chemical stimulus
lack of connective tissue layer, normally houses B, T and other WBCs, filter or trap foreign partibles
Medium to carry lymphocytes, fluid picked up and returned to blood stream
transport lymphocytes through body
parasitic worms transmitted by mosquitoes, thickens skin and worms live in human lymphatic system, starts swelling
What would be the effect on the immune system if the thymus was not functioning normally during childhood?
T cells don't mature, don't make thymocine, no mature white blood cells
Why is it important to have an abundance of lymphatic nodules located along the respiratory and digestive tracts
Lymph nodules form in regions of frequent exposure to microorganisms or foreign materials and contribute to the defense against them
covered by a connective tissue capsule, which gives rise to connective tissue septa that se=ubdivide each lobe
responsible for cell-mediated immune response
directly attack and destroy foreign microorganisms by phagocytosis or by releasing chemicals