Psychology Exam 2

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What is the value of the resting membrane potential?

-70

Electrical conduction in the _______________ is active.

Axon

Electrical conduction in the _______________ is passive.

Dendrite

Information is conducted when ________________ is released at the synapse.

neurotransmitters

A very brief shift in electrical charge that travels along the axon is called
an _____________ ________________.

action potential

The chemicals that are secreted from the terminal buttons into the synapse are

neurotransmitters

The correct order that information passes through in a neuron is

dendrite, soma, axon

The "all-or-none law" refers to the fact that

a neuron transmits an impulse of the same strength each time it fires an action potential

What event causes the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft?

the arrival of the action potential at the terminal buttons

The nervous system consists of two major divisions: the ____ and ____ nervous systems.

central; peripheral

Which brain structure appears to play an active role in integrating sensory information?

thalamus

A loosely connected network of brain structures involved in memory and emotional experiences such as fear and pleasure is the

limbic system

The primary visual cortex is located in the

occipital lobe

The parietal lobe contains the primary

somatosensory cortex

Zeke has no problem understanding what other people say to him, but he has difficulty producing spoken language. If Zeke's problem stems from damage to the cerebral cortex, the damage would most likely be in

an area known as Broca's area

Following split-brain surgery an individual would have difficulty naming an object that he briefly saw in the left visual field because while the ____ hemisphere "saw" the object, naming tasks are under the control of the ____ hemisphere.

right; left

Nadine had a stroke that was confined to the right side of her brain. Based on hemispheric lateralization studies you might expect that Nadine would have the most problems with tasks that require

spatial skills, such as fitting together puzzle pieces.

Darwin believed that a trait contributed to evolution by providing

either a reproductive or survival advantage.

The premise that heritable characteristics provide a survival or reproductive advantage and are more likely to be passed on to subsequent generations is known as

natural selection.

Results from family, twin, and adoption studies strongly suggest that

genetics and experience jointly influence human behavior.

If a trait is influenced to some degree by genetic factors, identical twins should be ____ similar to each other than fraternal twins because identical twins ____.

more; have 100% of their genetic information in common

Current evidence indicates that schizophrenia results from

multiple causes that involve both genetic and environmental factors.

It is MOST accurate to state that family, twin, and adoption studies are designed to determine the effect of ____ on human behavior.

both experience and genetics

While ____ are the receptor cells for color vision, ____ allow us to see in dim light.

cones; rods

The retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of a visual cell is referred to as the cell's

receptive field

The main pathway visual signals travel from the eye to the visual cortex is

optic nerve - optic chiasm - thalamus - occipital lobe

Complex cells in the visual cortex respond to

specific widths and orientation of lines anywhere in their receptive field

Most accurately, additive color mixing occurs when combining

lights of different colors

Most accurately, subtractive color mixing occurs when combining

pigments of different colors

After having your picture taken with a yellow flash, you momentarily see blue spots floating before your eyes. This phenomenon is best explained by

opponent process theory

Reversible figures illustrate the observation that

the same visual input can result in different perceptions

The basic assumption of Gestalt psychology is that

our perception of a "whole" may have qualities that do not exist in any of the parts

Which of the following is not one of the Gestalt principles describing how individual elements are grouped into higher-order forms?

complexity

The Gestalt principle that best explains our perception of reversible figures such as the two silhouetted faces/vase figure is

figure-ground

Natalie sat on her porch looking out at the field of soybeans. The fact that Natalie perceived the soybean plants as being grouped into a series of separate rows is consistent with the Gestalt principle of

proximity

The perceptual tendency to perceive a pile of change as being composed of pennies, nickels, and dimes is the result of

similarity

Depth perception cues that result because of the differing views of the two eyes are

binocular depth cues

Which of the following is not a monocular pictorial depth cue?

accommodation

When your psychology professor is lecturing to your class, your professor can tell which students are sitting in the first, second, third, etc., row, in part because students in the closer rows appear to have larger heads than students in more distant rows. This illustrates the depth perception cue of

relative size

If you incorrectly perceive that two lines are the same length when they are not, you are experiencing a(an)

illusion

The moon illusion

large; size constancy

The Ponzo illusion

linear perspective

The exp. of the Mull- Lyer

less susceptive

The correct order that auditory information travels as sounds enter the ear is from the auditory canal to

eardrum - ossicles - oval window - cochlea

Given our present knowledge concerning pitch perception, which theory seems more accurate?

both the frequency and place theory are partly correct

Which of the following is not one of the four primary tastes?

spicy

The olfactory cilia are the

receptors for the sense of smell

Middle C sounded on piano

purity

Pitch perception can best

ft, pt, bt

The only sensory

smell

The awareness of internal and external stimuli defines

consciousness

The four basic EEG patterns are

alpha, beta, theta, delta

Circadian rhythms are biological cycles that are

24 hours in length

Peter is in a deep sleep and his brain wave pattern consists of low frequency delta waves. Peter is experiencing which stage of sleep?

Stage 3 or 4

Bailey is hooked up to an electroencephalograph (EEG) in a sleep lab. She has been asleep for just over an hour now, and her EEG is showing low amplitude, irregular brain wave patterns. Her breathing and pulse rate are irregular, and her eyes are darting back and forth beneath her closed eyelids. The researcher who is monitoring Bailey's sleep can conclude that Bailey

has just entered REM sleep

Compared to young adults, infants sleep for a ____ period of time each day and spend a ____ proportion of their total sleep time in REM sleep.

longer; larger

Which of the following has not been suggested as a hypothesis concerning the evolutionary bases of sleep?

to reduce the risk of accidents during the night part of the day-night cycle

While serving as a subject at a sleep clinic, Erica is deprived of dreaming for several nights. As a result, she is likely to

experience REM rebound and spend more time in REM sleep on subsequent nights

Stephen wanders about while remaining asleep. Stephen's condition is called

somnambulism

A systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility defines

hypnosis

Which theory of dreaming suggests that the cortex constructs dreams in order to make sense out of neural impulses from subcortical areas of the brain?

activation-synthesis

The idea that hypnosis is associated with divided consciousness and is an altered state is most consistent with which of the following theories of hypnosis?

Hilgard's dissociation theory

Drugs such as morphine and heroin that are capable of relieving pain are know as

narcotics

Hallucinogens are drugs that

cause distortions in sensory and perceptual experience

A progressive decrease in a person's responsiveness to a drug as a result of continued use is called

tolerance

When a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness it is termed

physical dependence

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