chapter 4

Created by cdalanno 

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Three Periods of Pregnancy

•Germinal period
•Embryonic period
•Fetal period

•Germinal period

•First 2 weeks
The zygote begins to duplicate, divide and differentiate
•Blastocyst: a cell mass that develops from the zygote
•The blastocyst becomes two distinct masses
•1) Placenta
•2) Embryo
•Must achieve implantation

Embryonic period

•Weeks 3-8
•Important developments
•CNS
•Head
•Cardiovascular system
•Extremities

•Fetal period

9th week until birth
•In the 3rd month
•Male or female (SRY)

When a sperm and ova unite, what is formed?

a zygote

The first hours and days of human development involve the processes of:

duplication, division, and differentiation

The fragile and tiny cell mass that is composed of cells from the duplicated, divided, and differentiated zygote is called:

a blastocyst

Fetal Period: Months 4 to 6

•Brain
•Neurogenesis
•Synaptogenesis
•Age of Viability (22 weeks)
•Higher risk for disorders
•28 weeks
•Brain-wave patterns

Fetal Period: Months 7 to Birth

Maturation of Body Systems
•Neurological
•Respiratory
•Cardiovascular
•How about responsiveness towards mom and dad

Which statistic accurately reflects the vulnerability of prenatal development?

Only 31% of all conceptions become living newborn babies.

A teratogen is:

a substance or a condition that can increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities

Prenatal Risk

Thalidomide
•"one of the biggest medical tragedies of modern times"
•Responsible for physical deformities
Teratogens: substances and conditions that increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities
•Risk analysis
•Science of weighing the chances that a particular teratogen will affect the fetus

Prenatal Risk: Amount

•Threshold effect: some teratogens are harmless until a exposure reaches a certain level

Prenatal Risk: Genetics

•Genetic predispositions matter

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

•Using or abusing alcohol during pregnancy
•Spectrum of Symptoms
•Growth
•Muscle tone
•Motor coordination
•Heart defects
•Problems with the child's face

Protective factors:

• Preventative measures can be taken against known teratogens
• Prenatal care
• How can mothers prepare?
a. Awareness
b. Trying to find out what to do when there is conflicting information on different opinions on what to do
c. Gain or lose weight depending
d. Use of medications
i. Stop certain prescriptions
ii. Take vitamins
e. Take care of yourself- work out; eat healthy; etc.

the Role of Prenatal Stress in Child Development

• What are your reactions to the article
a. Some stress is good for the baby
b. One of our ideas about stress and prenatal development- was wrong
c. Linear relationship
i. As stress increases-more stress in the body-reduce ideal development; but the article says the "INVERTED U"-don't be not stressed at all or don't be too stressed
d. Not conclusive results- animal studies doesn't apply to humans
• What are your thoughts on prenatal stress
• How might these results differ when comparing one individual to another?

The word "breech refers to the position of the baby as:

feet first; and buttocks first

Birth:

• Most fetuses are born head first
• 1 in 20 babies are breech-feet or buttocks first
• It is rare that the fetus will be lying on the side
i. Then impossible for vaginal birth

Newborn Assessment

• Apgar Scale-1 minute and 5 min after birth
a. Heart rate
b. Breathing
c. Muscle tone
d. Color
e. Reflexes
• If below 7 then they need help
• If below 4 newborn is in critical condition

Conehead Babies

• Fontanels
a. Soft spots on the top and back of newborn's head
b. Back one closes first-time the baby is 2-4 months old
c. One in front closes at 18 months on average; 9-12 months at earliest

Vacuum-assisted delivery is a type of delivery method for birth

True-ventuse delivery
• Cone head could come from this
• It all goes back to normal
• Sometimes the baby won't come out even though the mom is ready so they use the vacuum to assist in delivery
• When vaginal birth is happening

Methods for birth

• Medical intervention
• Home birth- 1% Spontaneous labor, or half is by choice
a. Risk complications
• Doula
a. Women who helps with the birth process
b. Attending births
c. Helping with breast feeding
d. Help with everything regarding birth...etc.
• C-sections- new designer baby delivery system trend in the media 30%

Birth complications

• Anything in the newborn, mother, or birth process that requires special medical attention

Birth Complications: Anoxia

•Anoxia
•No oxygen
•Cerebral Palsy
•Difficulties with movement and speech
•resulting from brain damage

Birth Complications: Low Birthweight (LBW)

•Body weight less than 5.5 lbs
•Preterm babies
•Small for gestational age (SGA)
•Risk factors for LBW or SGA
•Placenta or umbilical cord
•Maternal illness
•Drug use
•Weight
•Multiple births

Future Implications

•Birth complications can have a lingering impact

Postpartum Depression

•10-15% of women experience PPD
•Implications
•Normal care is a burden
•Thoughts of abuse or neglect
•Could have lasting effects

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