History Mark-scheme Cold War

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25. Evaluate the role of the policies of the United States in the origins of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949.

This question might trigger the debate about the "different schools" on the origins of the Cold War. This is acceptable providing that candidates answer the demands of the question and evaluate the nature and significance of the policies of the US.

Main policies to address are Containment - the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan. Other aspects which are not "policies" but could be taken into consideration are: Truman's hard-line approach toward the USSR; his omission at Potsdam of informing Stalin about the atomic bomb and the dropping of it at Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the German Question; the Berlin Airlift and NATO.

26. Compare and contrast the role of two leaders, each chosen from a different region, in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1964.

Candidates can compare/contrast the two leaders in terms of policies, personalities, achievements or failures.

The question does not require that the leaders have different ideologies. Possible choices could be: Eisenhower and Kennedy for the USA; Khrushchev for the USSR; Castro in Cuba; Nasser in Egypt; Mao in China; etc. Accept any leaders of the candidate's choice providing that they are relevant for the time period and the Cold War.

If only one leader is addressed, mark out of a maximum of [7 marks].

27. Why did détente develop between 1969 and 1979?

Candidates should be aware that détente was due to many different reasons. The move toward détente between the superpowers was due to the changing international environment and stimulated by developments within the US and the USSR, as well as involving initiatives taken by European leaders to reduce tensions in Europe. What made some agreements necessary was the growing awareness of the potential dangers of confrontation leading to nuclear destruction.

Some of the international conditions were: the end of bipolarity and movement toward "multipolarity"; the rise of China and the growth of popularity of the non-alignment movement among developing countries. For the developments within the US and the Soviet Union the following could be addressed: the Soviet Union under Brezhnev was facing economic stagnation; its relations with China were strained (Sino-Soviet Split) and the conditions in Eastern Europe were unstable. For the US, by the late 1960s Vietnam, strategic priorities, economic decline and social unrest all presented problems. Among the European initiatives the most significant was Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik (eastern policy) in 1972. The US and the Soviet Union reached strategic nuclear parity (Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)) and this situation not only posed a threat to the economic well-being of both superpowers, but also provided a balance of power that could act as a deterrent.

28. Analyse the impact of Afghanistan (1979-1988) on the development of the Cold War.

The 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan marked the start of renewed hostility as the so-called Second or New Cold War occurred. The invasion led to widespread condemnation of the USSR and was perceived in the West as evidence of the expansionist tendencies of the USSR. It marked the end of any further negotiation between the superpowers. President Carter withdrew the SALT II Treaty from the Senate, cut off trade contacts between the USA and the USSR, boycotted the Moscow Olympics in 1980, and increased arms spending. It was also a key issue of the US presidential election of 1980, won by Ronald Reagan. Under Reagan, the USA embarked on a program of arms expansion in order to meet the threat of the "evil empire". He also developed the Reagan Doctrine, an important Cold War strategy to oppose the influence of the Soviet Union by backing anti-communist guerrillas against Soviet client states. Upon becoming president, Reagan moved quickly to undermine Soviet efforts to subdue the government of Afghanistan. Islamic mujahideen guerrillas were covertly supported and trained, and backed in their jihad against the occupying Soviets by the CIA. The Agency committed billions of dollars in military aid to the guerrillas.

When Gorbachev came to power in 1985, the Soviet experience in Afghanistan (where the war had dragged on without a decisive result, but which had cost the Soviets over 15 000 soldiers and $8 billion per year) led to a re-evaluation of Soviet involvement in developing countries. It led to the withdrawal of the Soviets from Afghanistan; it became part of Gorbachev's "New Political Thinking" and eventually contributed to the end of the Cold war.

29. "The Cold War came to an end primarily because of Gorbachev's changes in Soviet policies." To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Some of the changes that could be mentioned are: pursuing improved relations with the USA; Soviet concessions leading to the USSR and the USA reaching important arms control agreements such as Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) in 1987 and Soviet unilateral reductions of conventional forces. The end of the Brezhnev Doctrine and its impact on Eastern Europe, in particular Gorbachev's policies towards Germany and his acceptance of a unified German state were also very significant. His attempts to repair relations with China, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan could also be discussed as contributing to the end of the Cold War.

Candidates could discuss other related factors such as Gorbachev's reform programme within the USSR (and its consequences for the future of the Soviet state) and stagnation of the Soviet economy.

30. Evaluate the impact of the Cold War on the culture of two countries, each chosen from a different region.

Answers will vary according to the selected countries. Candidates should approach this question by discussing how the Cold War affected music, art, sports, literature, television programmes, film, popular music, radio programmes or fashion. Specific examples are required.

If only one country or one region is addressed, mark out of a maximum of [12 marks]

25. To what extent were the policies of the United States responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?

This question might trigger the debate about the "different schools" of thought on the origins of the Cold War. This is acceptable providing that candidates answer the demands of the question and address the policies of the USA during this period. Soviet policies could also be discussed to accept, debate or deny USA responsibility.

Candidates may include some of the following: adherence to decisions made at Yalta and Potsdam; the testing and use of atomic weapons, the occupation of Germany; the policy of Containment as applied through the Truman Doctrine and Marshal Plan; the unification of the Western allies' zones of occupation; currency reform; the response to the Berlin Blockade; the formation of NATO.

26. Compare and contrast the significance of leaders in two Cold War conflicts, each chosen from a different region, between 1950 and 1963.

Candidates will probably interpret conflict to mean armed conflict, for example, Korea, Suez, Hungary, and the Congolese Civil War. Another interpretation of conflict could be an increase in tension such as in Guatemala, during the Cuban Missile Crisis and after the construction of the Berlin Wall. Regardless of the conflicts chosen, candidates must focus on the role of the relevant leaders in the development of the conflict and its outcome.

If only one conflict is addressed, mark out of a maximum of [7 marks].

27. Analyse the impact of the Cold War on the Middle East between 1956 and 1973.

Answers to this question could be approached in different ways. One way might be to select some of the Middle East conflicts during this period and analyse the participation and impact of the superpowers. Another way could be to analyse how the Cold War helped instigate conflicts in the Middle East. Regardless, the answer should be supported by relevant analysis and specific material.

Some of the conflicts that could be analysed are: the Suez Crisis 1956; the Six Day War 1967; the Yom Kippur War 1973. Some of the ways in which the Cold War impacted on the Middle East could be: support for or opposition to, some nations or leaders; the provision or withholding of arms; the search for spheres of influence by the superpowers; overt or covert support of factions; etc..

28. Assess the achievements and limitations of détente between 1969 and 1979.

By the early 1970s the superpowers were prepared to accept the compromises necessary to secure agreements on issues of mutual concern. Treaties such as SALT I (1972) and the Helsinki Agreements (1975) can be seen as the central achievements of détente. The difficulties in their implementation can be perceived as limitations. Achievements of détente include the improvement of relations between the USA and the USSR and the USA and China. Some of the limitations were: detente did not reduce tensions in all areas of international relations; conflicts within the developing world continued and even intensified. This situation produced renewed suspicion and mistrust leading to the collapse of détente after 1979.

29. "The Cold War came to an end due to the hard-line approach of Ronald Reagan's policies in the early 1980s." To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Candidates may agree or disagree with this view but, in either case, Reagan's policies should be addressed.

Supporters of this view can credit Reagan's hard-line approach as providing the pressure that caused the Soviet Empire to collapse. Among these policies were: support for anti-communist groups such as those in Afghanistan, Angola and Nicaragua and a program of unprecedented arms production, [including SDI]. Unable to match the increased defence spending of the USA, the USSR moved to end the arms race and the Cold War. Candidates that disagree with the quotation may mention other economic problems of the USSR, the quagmire of the Soviet Afghan War and the reformist policies of Gorbachev that led to the collapse of the USSR.

30. Discuss the economic impact of the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region.

Candidates should appreciate that the Cold War involved more than just political issues and that in order to "win" the conflict, many economic means were used. Some of the issues might include: trade; economic assistance; the application of economic sanctions; etc. In addition to these factors, the countries' expenditure on arms, the allocation of resources etc. will give opportunities for candidates to discuss negative and positive aspects of how the Cold War impacted national economies.

Assess the part played by differing ideologies in the origin of the Cold War.

Candidates should be well prepared to explain and discuss the differences between communism and democracy, and a directed and planned economy versus a free market economy. They will probably explain opposition to Bolshevik revolution and rule, and state that cooperation of the two ideologies was only possible with a common enemy. Other causes of the Cold War such as fear and mutual suspicion and/or power politics could then be considered. A frequent weakness in answers to questions on the origin of the Cold War is that candidates do not know where to stop. Some recount the whole course of the Cold War, but up to 1950 is sufficient.

In what ways, and with what results, was Germany the key focus of the early stages of the Cold War?

Candidates could consider: Yalta and Potsdam; the division of Germany and Berlin into four; the problem of reparations; disagreements between East and West; the Berlin Blockade and Airlift; division into two countries - the German Democratic Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany. This division could be considered as either an example of "ways" or "results". Other results could include: the different political and economic systems in each part; exodus from east to west; Marshall Plan; NATO; Warsaw Pact; entrenchment of the Cold War and perhaps the Berlin Wall, but no further.

Analyse the part played by Cuba in the development of the Cold War.

The main areas to cover are: Castro's embracing of the USSR and communism, and rejection of the USA; Bay of Pigs; Missile Crisis and its aftermath; other ways in which Castro gave aid to support communism, revolutionaries, and hopeful converts in Third World countries. Analysis should be made to ascertain how important the above were in developing the Cold War; did they almost lead to a third world war or to détente and an improvement in relations between East and West? [0 to 7 marks] for a brief answer confined to the missile crisis. [8 to 10 marks] for narrative of some of the above with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit analysis. [14 to 16 marks] for structured analysis of the part played by Cuba in the Cold War. [17+ marks] for specific, detailed evidence and depth of analysis.

Evaluate the role of one superpower in the Cold War after 1970

The term superpower applies to either USSR or USA, but allow China in the unlikely event of it being chosen. Candidates probably will not like a question that deals with events from 1970 to the end of the Cold War. The main developments which concern both or one of the superpowers are: Vietnam War; US relations with China normalized; space race; US intervention in Latin America; test ban treaties: other arms limitation treaties; Soviet invasion of Afghanistan; breakdown of détente; anti-communist demonstrations/parties formed in Soviet satellite states; fall of the Berlin Wall; end of Communism. Candidates need to assess and evaluate the role of their chosen superpower, using relevant points above to judge each issue and its relation to prolonging or bringing to an end the Cold War. [0 to 7 marks] for general assertions. [8 to 10 marks] for narrative with implicit evaluation. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit evaluation of the chosen superpower's role. [14 to 16 marks] for structured analysis focused on the role of the superpower. [17+ marks] for balanced judgment or different interpretations.

To what extent did economic problems in the Communist bloc bring about the end of the Cold War?

his question covers all the eastern bloc including the USSR. The demands of the question are that candidates explain the troubled economic situation in this area and decide how far this was responsible for bringing to an end the Cold War. As it asks "to what extent" other factors need to be assessed, that is political events and motives, and even external pressures such as support for rebels, and perhaps the impact of disillusionment with the communist ideology. Economic problems could include poverty, unemployment, lack of necessities or luxury goods, strikes etc. [0 to 7 marks] for unsubstantiated generalizations. [8 to 10 marks] for descriptive answers with implicit assessment. [11 to 13 marks] for specific examples and assessment of economic problems in the communist bloc. [14 to 16 marks] for analysis of the economic problems and their impact. [17+ marks] for thoughtful attention to "to what extent?"

21. "The breakdown of East-West relations was due to the failure of both sides to appreciate the fears of the other." With reference to the period 1945-53, to what extent do you agree with this statement?

Essentially an origins (and early development) of the Cold War question. Candidates could identify the respective leaders and fears of/perceived threats to both sides in this period. Truman and Stalin are likely to be the main leaders identified but some candidates may include Roosevelt and Churchill in responses.No doubt some will argue that the breakdown was simply the resumption of a more long-standing animosity or fear dating back pre-Grand Alliance but the emphasis is on the 1945-53 period and developments which led to the (re)emergence of East-West hostility.

Arguments/suspicion over issues raised and discussed at Yalta, and especially by the time of

Potsdam, should be well known. Coverage of the German Question, Poland, Greece and Turkey, the "liberation"/"occupation" of Eastern Europe, Containment policies (Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan) and Soviet moves (Cominform and Comecon), NATO, and the spread of conflict to Korea (given the 1953 date), are all relevant.The respective "fears" of both need to be addressed - what was the perception of both sides in relation to such events? Were leaders simply reacting to perceived aggression (military, economic) of the other - or were both sides deliberately pursuing aggressive and expansionist policies in their own interests?

The "to what extent" invitation allows for the identification of other factors which initiated a breakdown - e.g. ideology, deliberate pursuit of aims by one side or the other in an attempt to spread their respective values system.

[0 to 7 marks] for unfocused generalizations.

[8 to 10 marks] for narratives of the origins of the Cold War with implicit assessment.

[11 to 13 marks] for more explicit identification of fears and assessment.

[14 to 16 marks] for structured and focused responses with a sound historical knowledge base and awareness of other factors.

[17+ marks] for full analytical and detailed answers which address the issue of fears and also other factors and offer a perceptive judgment of their relative importance.

22. How effective was the United States policy of containment up to 1962?

Candidates could explain the circumstances in which the policy was adopted, the aims of the policy and the methods involved. The adoption of the policy in its European context, and its subsequent expansion to a global policy by 1950, could include reference to: US perceptions of Soviet policy in the post-war era (reference to the Sovietisation of E. Europe, Soviet "involvement" in Greece and Turkey; fears relating to developments in post-Potsdam Conference Germany); Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan as "two halves of the same walnut"; Berlin crisis of 1948/9; NATO; establishment of the PRC 1949; Korea; Indochina; Berlin 1958-61; Cuba.

There is much to choose from. Do not necessarily expect all, but the emphasis should be on

judging the effectiveness of the policy after it was adopted. Did it halt expansion - how, where, why? Examples where it proved less successful - how, where, why? Specific details/examples are needed for substantiation.

[0 to 7 marks] for poorly substantiated or inadequate responses.

[8 to 10 marks] for narrative/descriptive accounts with implicit assessment of effectiveness.

[11 to 13 marks] for adequate detail and explicit focus. Not all implications considered or sufficiently developed.

[14 to 16 marks] for informed, well-focused and explicit assessment of the effectiveness ofthe policy.

[17+ marks] for analytical, knowledgeable responses which reveal insight into the functioning of the policy in the period.

23. For what reasons, and with what results for East-West relations, did the superpowers become involved in the affairs of one of the following: Korea; Vietnam; the Middle East?

A two-part question requiring candidates to explain the motives behind involvement in either area of conflict and what result this had for East-West relations. It is not an invitation to detail or recount the course of the conflicts in either area.

For Korea, accept answers which use either the start of the Korean War in 1950, or the "liberation" from Japan in 1945 as a starting date.

For Vietnam - accept starting date from either 1946, or from 1960-61.

Middle East - could include the Arab-Israeli dispute characterized by a series of wars since 1948 and/or Iran/Iraq/Afghanistan. Reasons could include: ideology; strategy; mutual fear of perceived rival expansion; prestige; proxy/surrogate conflict; economic resources etc.

Results could include: intensification of tensions; economic and political burdens placed upon superpower participants; arms/technological development; realisation of risk of direct confrontation leading to periods of peaceful co-existence/détente; increasing role of PRC in East-West confrontation etc.

24. To what extent was the collapse of communist regimes the result of domestic problems rather than external pressures?

Candidates should identify and explain the domestic problems which beset the chosen regimes.

Material shortages, production problems, the difficulties of maintaining a satisfactory level of consumer goods whilst maintaining expenditure on military/defence budgets, ossification of the command economy and central planning systems could all be examined and commented upon.

"External pressures" could be seen as linked to economic pressures since they required the regimes' expenditure to the disadvantage of the population - leading to dissatisfaction, demonstrations or a need for restructuring which opened the gates to political reform. Other external pressures (the role for example of religious institutions) could be considered - e.g. in Poland or the GDR/DDR.

Other factors could also be identified: disillusionment with ideology; the "domino effect" of reform on regimes following the collapse or weakening of the regimes in USSR, Poland etc. If only one state is dealt with mark out of [12 marks].

25. Compare and contrast the role of education and the arts in one communist and onenon-communist state.

For education: answers could consider issues such as indoctrination; the promulgation of desired citizenship values; technical/scientific programmes and their purpose; "education" not only for youth but for an adult population; the concept of a "liberal education" for the sake of the individual as opposed to the ideological needs and dictates of the state.

For "arts" interpret in its widest sense - literature, painting, theatre, film, sculpture etc. What did the state see as the function of the arts? For example, in a communist regime art could be used as a tool for the promotion of party values (the artist as "an engineer of souls"). In a non-communist state was freedom of expression of the individual observed/encouraged? Censorship?

21. Analyse the origin of East-West rivalry and explain why it developed into the Cold War.

This should present few problems for most candidates, as the origin of the Cold War appearsto be one of their favourite (and most taught) topics. They need to explain briefly and concisely relations and animosity between East and West from the second/Bolshevik revolution in 1917, until 1941, the Grand Alliance of the Second World War.

Candidates could then explain and analyse the ideological differences between the two sides, perhaps also pointing out old diplomatic rivalries. Development into the Cold War covers the period 1945, with the break down of the war time alliance, until about 1950 and should coverthe Yalta and Potsdam conferences, problems with Germany, the growth of the Eastern Bloc, Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine. Specific material mentioned above should provide a base to analyse ideology, fear, aggression, etc.

22. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan affect Cold War development?

Another question that will probably be popular. For reasons, candidates need to explain the European situation which caused USA to adopt a policy of containment and offer aid for both political and economic reasons: the devastation in many countries; economic and financial weakness of France and Britain caused by the Second World War; the attitude to, and the overrunning of, Eastern Europe by the USSR. The Doctrine and Plan should be concisely explained, then the results in developing the Cold War, hardening of attitudes, etc. should be analysed.

23. Compare and contrast the roles of Korea and Vietnam in the Cold War.

For comparison:

• both countries were divided and each had one part under Soviet influence and the other under US influence;

• both were episodes of actual warfare in the Cold War;

• both widened the war (geographically);

• both wars involved Communist and Western powers seeking to retain their influence;

• both involved US forces but not Soviet troops officially;

• both caused many casualties and raised tension.

For contrast:

• the US forces fought under the UN banner in Korea, but as American forces in Vietnam;

• Vietnam was more of a Communist victory and US defeat, whereas Korea ended with an armistice;

• the Korean War marked an important stage in Chinese involvement in the Cold War;

• Vietnam had a greater impact on US domestic issues and US attitudes to the Cold War.

24. Explain the meaning of two of the following and show how each affected the development of the Cold War: containment; brinkmanship; non-alignment; détente.

Candidates need to give a clear definition of the two policies they have chosen then explain how the policy affected the Cold War, for example who pursued the policy, did it fulfil its aims, did it cause more or less tension in the Cold War, did it lead to the end of the Cold War? Actual details and assessment will depend on the two policies chosen.

Briefly, containment was US policy to limit the expansion of communism; brinkmanship was forcing a rival power to reach an agreement by instigating a dangerous situation; non-alignment was not supporting either side; détente was seeking to lower tension and strained relations between opposing sides.

25. When and why did the Cold War end?

There can, of course, be no one specific date for the end of the Cold War, but most candidates should be able to point to the period 1989-90. Many may give November 1989 with the opening of the Berlin Wall, or early 1990, with the break up of the Soviet Union. They can also indicate events earlier in 1989, such as the opening of Hungary's borders with the West, and Solidarity's election victory in Poland, as the beginning of the end.

Most of the answer should be devoted to the second part of the question, which requires candidates to assess why Communism collapsed. Candidates can discuss economic weaknesses, the Communist bloc's financial debt to the West, political problems, the

impossibility of keeping the people in ignorance of Western standards, growth of opposition,

(especially in Poland and Czechoslovakia), policies of the Soviet leader Gorbachev,

(from 1985), of Glasnost and Perestroika.

[0 to 7 marks] for inaccurate or inadequate knowledge.

[8 to 10 marks] for narrative accounts with implicit "why".

[11 to 13 marks] for explicit attention to "when and why".

[14 to 16 marks] for structured, focused and analytical answers.

[17+ marks] for perceptive analysis, balance and chronology.

21. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Second World War allies become post-war enemies?

The beginning/origin of the Cold War is always popular and candidates should have no difficulty in pointing out that the Second World War allies were unlikely associates, only united by their enmity of Hitler and the Nazis. Some will go back to 1917 to explain the difference between USSR and the Western allies, but it is legitimate to state the different ideologies and the circumstances of the alliance that could include conflicting aims and rivalry over spheres of influence. Events to be discussed could include conferences, Germany and Berlin, Eastern Europe, the atomic bomb, etc. that caused the alliance to disintegrate. The results were the Cold War, and further conflict. Candidates would not be expected to go beyond 1950, and could conclude earlier.

22. In what ways did developments in Germany affect the Cold War between 1945 and 1961?

This should be another popular question, as it allows candidates to use their knowledge of Germany from Potsdam and Yalta, through Berlin including the blockade and airlift, to the division of Germany into east and west and the Berlin Wall. However candidates must comment throughout on the second part of the question as to how these developments affected the Cold War. They could bring in Marshall Plan, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and note the increase or decrease of tension and rivalry.

23. Compare and contrast the roles of China and Cuba in the Cold War.

For comparison candidates could include:

both countries were allies of the USSR, but had their differences;

both had strong, ambitious leaders, Mao and Castro;

both used aid to developing countries to further communism and their own role;

both influenced the development of détente.

For contrast:

Mao had more differences with USSR than Castro did;

Mao had ambitions to be accepted as leader of the Communist bloc;

China was active in Korea and Vietnam;

for Cuba the height of the Cold War was the Missile crisis;

the Americas was Cuba's main sphere of interest, Asia was China's;

the relations of the USA with China improved in 1972, US relations with Cuba remained hostile.

24. "Gender issues played no part in the Cold War." To what extent do you agree with this statement?

Candidates will probably agree with this assertion, and can show how ideology and power politics rather than social and economic ones started and fuelled the Cold War. But treatment of women could be shown to differ between East and West during the Cold War. Propaganda was used in both China and the USSR to obtain and maintain the support and active involvement of women, including fighting in the "hot wars".

Communist countries also claimed to have emancipated women, and they were more likely to be involved in heavy labour in the communist bloc.

25. Assess the economic and social effects of the Cold War on one superpower.

This will probably not be a popular question. By superpowers candidates should understand USA and USSR, but allow China. Candidates must focus on the economy, and how both the country as a whole, and individual citizens were affected; for example in relation to trade, employment, finance and commerce. Social effects could include fear, morale, travel, propaganda, education, etc. Political effects are not relevant, but the cost of the arms race is.

21. "The importance of ideology as the major cause of the Cold War has been greatly exaggerated." To what extent do you agree with this statement?

This will be a popular question which provides students with an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge of the origins of the Cold War. The answer would benefit from a strong analytical format, which addresses the role of ideology as well as providing other significant reasons for the emergence of the Cold War. There should be clear demonstration of significant causes other than ideology which led to the confrontation. Answers should demonstrate a sound knowledge of the significant events and attitudes of the countries and leaders involved. [0 to 7 marks] for vague, general or irrelevant comments. [8 to 10 marks] for descriptive accounts with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit focus on ideology as a cause and an attempt to comment on its comparative importance. [14 to 16 marks] for good structure, clear focus and analysis. [17 + marks] for excellent structure, knowledge and analysis.

22. For what reasons, and with what results, did the Soviet Union become involved with Cuba after 1959?

This could prove a popular question. Candidates should demonstrate awareness of the Soviet reasons for venturing into the Western hemisphere.

Reasons for involvement could include: Khrushchev's personality as a risk-taker, looking for a personal triumph to establish his leadership; the desire to break containment imposed by US; the American rejection of Castro which created an opportunity for the USSR; Castro actively seeking assistance to break the American economic grip; Soviet desire to improve their image in the Third World, especially in light of Chinese criticism; the opportunity to gain a foothold in the Western hemisphere from which to spread communism and undermine US influence in Latin America; a possible method of putting pressure on the US over the issue of Berlin and a base from which to address the Soviet strategic disadvantage in terms of long-range missiles.

Results of involvement could include: Soviets negotiated economic agreements with Cuba; Soviet troops were stationed in Cuba; Soviet naval bases were established, Soviet missiles were installed, which brought on the missile crisis; the fall of Khrushchev by 1964; Cuba became a major source of anti-US propaganda in Latin America as a model for Latin American nationalists; Cuba was a base for the spreading of communism in Latin America (Che Guevara), however this proved largely unsuccessful; Cuba provided troops to support Soviet incursions into Angola and Ethiopia; Cuban economy became a major drain on Soviet finances and Soviet presence in Cuba undermined their relations with the US.

[0 to 7 marks] for vague, general or irrelevant comments. [8 to 10 marks] for narrative accounts with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit focus on reasons and results. [14 to 16 marks] for good structure, clear focus and analysis. [17+ marks] for excellent structure, knowledge and analysis.

23. Explain how the Cold War affected the art and culture of one country from 1945 to 1991.

This is a question which offers a wide choice to students.

Ways in which the Cold War affected the arts might include: censorship of ideas/materials which criticized government or supported the other side, imprisonment or other restrictions on artists, government funded art projects for propaganda, banning of foreign influences, funds from foreign countries to support politically acceptable art projects, foreign media bringing new ideas and techniques, imitation of art/culture from Cold War allies. Cold War ideology might require art and culture to promote specific ideas and demonise others. [0 to 7 marks] for vague, general or irrelevant comments. [8 to 10 marks] for descriptions with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit explanation of effects. [14 to 16 marks] for good structure, clear focus and analysis. [17+ marks] for excellent structure, knowledge and analysis.

24. In what ways, and with what results, did the US implement the policy of containment in Asia between 1950 and 1975?

This may prove to be a popular question. Candidates must explain both ways and results in order to reach higher mark bands. The ways in which containment was implemented could be considered under the following thematic headings: military; economic and political/diplomatic. Military: intervention in conflicts or potential conflicts to prevent spread of communism, e.g. Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam; rearming Japan; providing arms to non-communist countries in the region; putting US garrisons in certain countries. Economic: rebuilding economies as a bulwark against communism (Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Taiwan, etc.); aid programs to encourage development of / friendship with countries in the region. Political/diplomatic: treaties to support countries in the region: (SEATO, ANZUS); supporting anti-communist leaders in Asian countries; opposing communists or sympathisers. An analysis of results could include comments on relative successes and failures of US policy. Successes: establishment of strong anti-communist states in the region, e.g. Japan, South Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, continued independence of Taiwan. Failures: communism spread to Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos; the US was humiliated by loss in Vietnam War - internal discussions in US populace; the loss in Indo-china forced US to change China policy; SEATO alliance broke up; US economy weakened by the expense of the containment policy. [0 to 7 marks] for vague, general or irrelevant comments. [8 to 10 marks] for narrative accounts with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit focus on reasons. [14 to 16 marks] for good structure, clear focus and analysis. [17+ marks] for excellent structure, knowledge and analysis.

25. Why did the Cold War end?

Candidates should produce well-structured analytical responses which clearly demonstrate knowledge of the major events and personalities involved. Ideas to consider could include: the Cold War ended because the Soviet economy was too weak to sustain a worldwide confrontation with the US, which was pursuing a more confrontational approach during the 1980s. This involves consideration of the cost of the arms race and new technology that the Soviets could not afford. The invasion of Afghanistan was costly and also damaged Soviet claims to moral superiority and the death of three Soviet leaders in quick succession caused a loss of direction. Eastern Europe was increasingly difficult to control in the 1980s (Polish Solidarity as an example). Gorbachev's central role and his "New Thinking" - Gorbachev realized that to achieve the restructuring of the Soviet economy and society the USSR would have to shed many costly burdens, for example the war in Afghanistan and subsidies to communist states like Cuba. A loosening of military and political control over Eastern Europe was also necessary. A new approach in Soviet society would require a new approach to foreign relations, a more cooperative attitude. Arms limitation, détente and a more cooperative attitude in the 1970s signalled the end of the confrontation of the Cold War. Gorbachev rejected the Brezhnev Doctrine, which led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and liberation of Eastern Europe, thus symbolising the end of the Cold War. The collapse of the USSR, as a result of internal crisis, meant that the Cold War was over. [0 to 7 marks] for vague, general or irrelevant comments. [8 to 10 marks] for descriptive accounts with implicit analysis. [11 to 13 marks] for explicit analysis of reasons. [14 to 16 marks] for good structure, clear focus and analysis. [17

21. For what reasons, and with what results, were there disagreements between participants at the conferences of Yalta and Potsdam in 1945?

Candidates should be able to explain why there were disagreements or grounds for possible antagonism between Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin at the conference of Yalta, and Attlee, Truman and Stalin at Potsdam, which took place in order to plan for the situation at the end of the Second World War. The meeting at Yalta in the Crimea took place between 4-11th February 1945. Among matters agreed were the disarmament and partition of Germany, the establishment of the United Nations, and the declaration by USSR of war on Japan after Germany was defeated. The Potsdam Conference lasted from 17th July to 2nd August, 1945. It was confirmed that Germany should be temporarily divided into four occupation zones, but political differences began to emerge. Reasons for disagreements could be: clash of personalities; different ideologies; past actions, before and during the war; mutual suspicion and fear; illness; change of participants at Potsdam.

Policies which caused disagreement included: post-war settlement of Europe; treatment of Germany; reparations; Poland.

Results could include: break up of war time alliance; increase of mutual fear and suspicion; onset of the Cold War; division of Germany; establishment of Soviet satellite states.

N.B. if only one conference is mentioned mark out of [12 marks].

22. Define, and analyse the importance of, two of the following: (a) the formation of NATO

(b) the Warsaw Pact

(c) non-alignment

(d) détente.

In this context "analyse" means "offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments and factors". Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation was a permanent military alliance, established by treaty in 1949. Its purpose was to defend Europe against Soviet aggression. Its institutions included a council, international secretariat, headquarters, bases and committees.

The Warsaw Pact was a delayed Soviet response to NATO. It was formed in 1955 like NATO all members were obliged to come to the aid of any member which was attacked. Unlike NATO it was also used to keep its members under control.

Non-alignment in the early years of the Cold War refers to states which decided not to take sides in the major division in world politics between the USA and the USSR, and formed the Non-aligned Movement which tried to mediate between the superpowers, and thus make a contribution to world peace. It was particularly associated with India and Nehru. Attempts by Mediterranean, African and Asian countries in the 1960s to renew the movement failed to reduce continuing superpower hostility. However conferences of the Non-alignment Movement were still held in the 1980s.

Détente means a reduction of conflict and tension between states. The term is usually applied to improved relations between East and West in the Cold War, especially to arms limitation. In the 1970s détente led to several agreements between the USA and USSR, including SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979), as well as the Helsinki Conference on economic and technological co-operation 1975. The 1980s saw a challenge to the process of détente until later in the decade.

N.B. if only one of the above is addressed mark out of [12 marks].

23. Examine the role and importance of fear and suspicion in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.

Questions on the role of "fear and suspicion" often refer to the origin of the Cold War, but this one begins in the year of the death of Stalin and end of the Korean War, and ends with the final departure of US advisers from Vietnam after the Vietnam War.

Candidates could include the attitudes of US presidents and soviet leaders towards each other, the persistent rivalry, claims and counter claims, the Warsaw Pact, arms race, space race, efforts to influence developing countries or obtain more satellite states, containment - all were grounded in fear and suspicion. The main crises and conflicts were: Hungary and Suez 1956; Berlin; Cuban missile crisis 1962; Vietnam War 1965-73. Détente in the early 1970s might also be mentioned. There is much material that candidates could use, so do not expect all the above.

24. In what ways were social and gender issues affected by the Cold War in two countries, each chosen from a different region?

Social issues could include all aspects of life which were affected by the existence of the Cold War. The split of Germany and the Berlin Wall, the terror felt in USSR and the east European satellite states, fighting in the "hot wars", such as Korea and Vietnam - both in combat areas and states whose soldiers were involved in the fighting, such as the USA. Many people were affected by fear - of nuclear bombing, by propaganda, which engendered hatred, by loss of homes, illness and poverty. Some lost their trust in governments. Gender issues would cover the impact on women, fear for husbands and sons fighting, fighting themselves, nursing the wounded, etc.

Of course not all experienced all of the above. Actual details will depend on the two countries chosen.

N.B. If only one country or one region is considered mark out of [12 marks].

25. Why did the Cold War spread from Europe to other parts of the world after 1950?

This question requires thought and planning, and candidates would be advised to structure it thematically. Students may begin with the Korean War, and continue with Vietnam, but the demands of the question require more. Some ideas and reasons which could be developed are: the Second World War left both US and USSR involved in Asia; European colonial powers were weakened by the Second World War and decolonisation left a vacuum which USSR, China and US sought to fill; US fears of communism's spread in Asia, and policy of containment; communist takeover of China under Mao; Mao's policies in Asia; USSR, USA, and China sought to expand spheres of influence, especially in non-aligned and developing countries; Castro's adoption of communism in Cuba. Although the Cold War began in Europe, it quickly spread throughout the world.

Do not demand or expect all the above.

21. What were the reasons for, and results of, the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?

The Truman Doctrine (12 March 1947) resulted from a speech given by President Truman to the US Congress. It pledged US support for, "free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure". It was prompted by the need to give aid to Greece and, Turkey, to prevent them falling under communist control. It could also be deduced that the actions of the USSR in Eastern Europe led to this move. It marked a switch to active anti-communism by the US administration; it established the policy of containment and contributed to the development of the Cold War.

The Marshall Plan originated from a speech by George Marshall at Harvard on 5 June 1947. It offered financial aid from the USA for a programme of European recovery. It was based on the fear that poverty would encourage the speed of communism in European countries. Its intention was to ensure economic recovery for both security and economic reasons. The results were suspicion from the USSR, and the recovery of Western Europe from the dislocation of the Second World War. Congress approve Marshall "aid" totalling $17 billion to be administered through the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1948 and 1952.

If only the Truman Doctrine or the Marshall Plan is addressed mark out of 12.

22. Define, and analyse the importance of, two of the following: (a) containment

(b) COMECON

(c) détente

(d) east European satellite states.

Definitions and importance could be:

Containment was the policy adopted by the USA in 1947in response to Soviet policies of expansion at the end of, and after, the Second World War. It aimed to contain communism. For importance, candidates could refer to the impact of containment on US foreign policy both in Europe and elsewhere.

COMECON - the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance, was established in Moscow by Stalin in January 1949, to improve trade between the USSR and its satellite Eastern European states. It was a reaction to the Marshall Plan and the economic power of the west. It eventually consisted of 10 member states, was dominated by the USSR, but there were often disagreements. It was disbanded in 1991. Its importance would include the way it was used to extend political influence as well as to control the production and distribution of goods within the communist world etc.

Détente was a term used to indicate the lessening of tension between the two sides of the Cold War. The term is usually applied to the improved relations, beginning in November 1969 with the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). There were several agreements between the USA and USSR in the 1970s including SALT I (1972), SALT II (1979) and those made at the Helsinki Conference in 1975 on economic and technological cooperation. In the 1980s détente was interrupted by further arms build-up, but returned with the policies of Gorbachev, from 1989 into the 1990s. Its importance would include the change it signified in relations between Cold War rivals, enabling arms control agreements etc.

The Eastern European satellites were the states "liberated" by Russian forces at the end of the Second World War, and then held under Soviet control. Free elections were not held and force was used to repress dissent and rebellion. It could be argued that events in some of the states during the 1980's contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War.

Assess the social and economic impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.

For social: lifestyles, employment, education, the arts and entertainment, healthcare, family life, religion, etc.

For economic: impact on trade and industry; money spent on armaments; impact on standard of living, higher or lower; trade partners; foreign aid in order to win support.

Specific details will depend on countries chosen, which must be from different regions. Perhaps the US and USSR will be popular choices, and as two countries are demanded, do not expect all the above suggestions to be covered

24. Analyse the role of mutual distrust in the development of the Cold War between 1953 and 1975.

Mutual distrust is usually part of a question on the causes of the Cold War, but this question requires its consideration as a factor in the development, from 1953 - the year of Stalin's death and the end of the Korean War - to 1975, the year that US advisers left Vietnam. Candidates could consider some of the following: the mutual distrust between US presidents and USSR leaders; arms, especially nuclear build-up; space race; efforts to score over each other; rivalry between Warsaw Pact and NATO; development and treatment of satellite states or spheres of influence. The main crises and conflict of the period, Hungary and Suez, 1956, Berlin Wall, 1961, Cuban missile crisis, 1962, Vietnam War 1965-1973, all had some impact from mutual distrust. The last few years also witnessed some détente and arms limitation, which some candidates may also discuss.

25. Why did the Cold War begin and end in Europe?

The origins of the Cold War began in Europe because it developed out of the 1917 Russian Revolutions, and the attitude to the Soviet regime by the West. The immediate causes were connected with the Second World War; with events such as the German invasion of Russia; the Soviet invasion of Germany and eastern Europe; the disintegration of the wartime alliance after the defeat of Hitler and Nazi Germany; and disagreements often based on the different ideologies of East and West. Actual disagreements about Germany, especially (Berlin and Poland) would be relevant as would the wartime conferences and other conflicts within Europe up to about 1950. The 1960s and 1970s need no be discussed.

The Cold War ended in Europe because of rising dissatisfaction within the Soviet bloc, the dire financial straits of the Soviet Union, and the policies of Gorbachev. It could be noted that communist regimes continued outside Europe.

21. "The events of 1945 marked both the high point and the breakdown of East-West relations." To what extent do you agree with this statement?

This question on the origins of the Cold War requires understanding of how the apparent unity of the Allied Powers collapsed into mistrust and suspicion.

Students could comment on the apparent optimism and cooperation which existed at Yalta. This might include but not be limited to: the Declaration on Liberated Europe; the agreement to aid in the war against Japan. The breakdown became evident at the Potsdam Conference. The US mistrusted the USSR over policies in Eastern Europe, violation of the Yalta agreements, disagreements over reparations and the future of Germany. The change of leadership in the US (Roosevelt to Truman) may be seen as significant. The USSR was concerned about the US atomic bomb, the rebuilding proposals for Germany, reparation issues and the exclusion of the USSR from Japan.

Students may extend the period of mistrust and suspicion beyond 1945 to include events in the early years of the Cold War up to 1950. These might include, but not be limited to: the Truman Doctrine; the Marshall Plan; the Czech coup; the Berlin Blockade; the Korean War.

22. For what reasons, and with what results, did either the USA or the USSR enter into a period of détente from 1970?

This question allows students to examine what each country hoped to gain from the détente process and to what extent its goals were achieved.

USA: Reasons for entering into a period of détente might include, but not be limited to: a desire to end the Vietnam War which would require assistance from Russia; a desire to reduce the defence budget to aid the economy (arms limitation would be a step in this direction); American willingness to recognize USSR's strategic parity in return for a deal to reduce world tensions and prevent further wars to which sections of the American public were increasingly opposed. Sino-Soviet hostility opened the way for a new US relationship with China which might push the Russians to an agreement. The idea of linkage was promoted: US technology in return for a Soviet agreement to reduce its support for revolution in the Third World.

Results: Early successes: SALT I agreement; joint space missions; better relations with Russia and China; more summit meetings to discuss major issues; improved communication between leaders. Subsequent disappointments: Soviet actions in the Middle East annoyed Americans; Soviet development of weapons systems; Soviet establishment of Communist regimes in Africa; Soviet expansion of influence in the Third World - linkage was not obtained.

USSR: Reasons: desire for recognition of strategic parity with the US; the US approach to China caused fear in USSR; continued fear of nuclear war; a desire for increased trade and technology from the USA as Russia fell behind in technology. A resolution of the German situation was desired as well as a final European settlement obtained at Helsinki.

USSR: Results: genuine arms control was not achieved; SALT II was not ratified; trade did not develop as it was hampered by US legislation linking it to human rights; US Congress developed anti-Soviet stance on human rights and emigration; Soviets took advantage of US weakness to make gains in Africa; détente became less popular in USA; President Carter's criticism of Soviet stance on human rights. The US, becoming more anti-Soviet, led to Ronald Reagan and a second Cold War, producing a setback for the USSR.

23. Assess the economic impact of the Cold War on two countries, each chosen from a different region.

Economic impact might include, but not be limited to: foreign trade or influence by political alliances or ideology; economic growth and development affected by foreign aid; subsidies; access to technology from friendly countries; government expenditure affected by Cold War requirements or priorities, e.g. arms, bases, armed forces preventing spending on health, education; economic impact of arms spending; participation in wars - leading to inflation, recession or economic dislocation; impact on employment and price levels of the injection of external funds; foreign aid; presence of foreign garrisons/bases; impact on government fiscal and monetary policy.

N.B. If only one country or one region is addressed, award a maximum of [12 marks].

24. Analyse the role of either Korea or the Middle East in the development of the Cold War.

Korea: Korea played a significant role in the development of the Cold War after 1945. This included but was not limited to: the division of the country after 1945; rivalry between US and Soviet backed regimes. Korea became an area for the extension and application of the Truman Doctrine/containment policy.

The Korean War extended the Cold War beyond Europe, reinforced US views on Soviet expansion, led to further emphasis on what was later (1954) called the Domino Theory and containment and encouraged the rearming of Japan and Germany which further alienated the Soviets. US hostility towards the PRC increased. Anti-Soviet attitudes in the US increased through McCarthyism and the belief in Soviet aggression led to NSC-68 which increased the arms race. The US developed a number of anti-Soviet alliances: SEATO; CENTO. This was a limited, proxy war which provided a pattern for further Cold War conflicts. Post-Korean War, Korea remained divided and a symbol of Cold War division and confrontation until the end of the Cold War. This contributed to the state of tension throughout the period.

Middle East: the Middle East contributed to the development of the Cold War from its inception until the end, in 1991. Early years: Russian reluctance to evacuate Iran and its attempts to influence Turkey raised concerns in the US, contributing to the proclamation of the Truman Doctrine. The Suez crisis led to "threats" of nuclear war and the expansion of Soviet influence caused concern in the US. The Eisenhower Doctrine may be seen as a response. Arab-Israeli conflicts in the 1960s and 1970s were also examples of proxy wars between the US and USSR, leading to heightened tension and risk of war. The US increased its presence in the Middle East to protect oil supplies. Camp David Accords 1978 were a major attempt by the US to reduce Soviet influence. Middle East tensions undermined the détente spirit in the 1970s.

25. To what extent was the arms race the principal reason for the end of the Cold War?

This question requires students to explore reasons why the Cold War ended. A number of theories may be presented but the response should include discussion of the role played by the arms race in the process. Students may see it as of limited importance but it should receive attention in their answer.

The arms race could be seen as crucial to the end of the Cold War as it contributed to economic pressure on the USSR, led to heightened fears of nuclear war and put pressure on leaders to negotiate an end to confrontations that could precipitate war.

Other theories suggest that the Cold War ended due to: the general economic collapse of the USSR; the decision of Gorbachev to change Soviet policy in Eastern Europe; pressures on the Soviet Union from its own people; the rebelliousness of Eastern European satellite states and poor relations with China.

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