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Chapter 3 Federalism REview

Of the diffrent ways of ordering relations between central governments and local units, the most common method in the world today is a

unitary system

In a unitary system of governement, the ultimate governement authority is the

national or central governement

In a unitary system of governement, the ultimate governement authority is the

national or central government

In a unitary system of government, the decisions of the governments of the provinces

can be overruled by the national government

In a unitary sysytem, the flow of power is

from the central government to the local and state governments

France is an example of

a unitary system

The commonwealth of Independent State is an example of

a confederal system

In a confederal political system the central governing unit has

no ability to make laws applicable without approval of state government.

In a federal political system power is

shared between the central government and regional governments

Our federal system of government was a compromise between those who favored

a strong central government and those who favored strong state governments

Obstacles to the creation of a unitary government at the Constiutional Convention included

the size and regional isolation would have been operationally difficult

In a federal political system state governments can

test new ideas by initaiting new laws within thier scope of power.

One of the arguments against Federalism is

that state and local interess can block progress and impede national plans

Enumerated powers of the national government do not include

the power to conduct elections

"Enumerated powers" means

the powers expressly delegated to the national government

the Tenth amendment states that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are

reserved to the states respectively or the people

the authority to legislate for the protection of the health, morlas, and safty of the people are called

police power

powers held jointly by the national and state governments are called

concurrent powers

reserved powers of the state governments include the power to

regulate commerce within its borders

states may not

make treaties with foreign nations

Most concurrent powers

are not specifically stated in the Constitution but rather only implied

the supremacy clause of the constitution means that

states cannot use their reserved or concurrent powers to thwart national policies

Preemption means

national laws take precedence over state laws

Activities, problems and policies that require state governments to interact with one another are called

horizontal federalism

the concept of horizontal federalism deals with relationships between

state governments

An agreement between two or more states is called

an interstate compact

States may enter into agreements called interstate compacts if

consented to by Congress

Most of the disputes regarding boundaries of national versus state power involve

diffrent interpretations of the implied powers of the national governments

The question(s) before the supreme court in McCulloch v. Maryland

was could the national government charter a bank, and was could a state tax a national bank

In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, the supreme court held that

only when acts of congress are forbidden by the constitution are they unconstitutional

The section of the constitution in which congress is given the authority to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries is called

the commerce clause

Gibbons v. Ogden concerned

the commerce clause

In Gibbons v. Ogden, the court held that

the national government can regulate commerce in states

In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden, commerce is defined as

all commerical intercourse

the heart of the controversy that led to the Civil War was the issue of

national government supremacy versus the rights of the separate states

The concept of nullification was an attempt to

indicate that states should have the ultimate authority over its citizens

an order issued by a court to compel or restrain the preformance of an act is called

an injunction

Nullification was used to justify

secession

the act of formally withdrawing from membership in an alliance called

secession

The first national income tax was passed in order to

pay for the huge debt caused by the civil war

both the increased spending by the national government and the nationally imposed income tax were

precursors to the expanded role of the national government

The civil war, brought about in large part because of the South's desire for increased states' rights, resulted in

an increase in the political power of the national government

The North's victory in the Civil War set the nation on the path to

modern industrial economy

In the area of economic regulation, the legal doctrine of dual federalism emphasized

an equality between federal and state in their spheres of sovereignty

Cooperative federalism was a natural outcome of Franklin D. Roosevelt's new deal programs because

federal grants were given to states to administer programs

The model of federalism where specific programs involve all levels of government is called

picket-fence federalism

Categorical grants in aid are

grants to states or local governments for very specific programs

The concept of federal mandates refers to

requirements in federal legislation that force states to comply with certain rules

In Printz v. United States, the supreme court

struck down provisions in the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act

The supreme court has interpreted the 11th amendment to mean

states cant be sued for violating rights established by federal laws

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