BIO202 - Chapter 18:The Circulatory System - Blood

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Circulatory System

System consisting of the heart, blood vessels, and blood

Cardiovascular System

System that refers to the heart and blood vessels

Hematology

Study of Blood

Respiration, Transport, Protection, Regulation

4 Functions of the Circulatory System

Fluid Balance, pH of ECF, Temperature

3 Things the Circulatory System Regulates

Plasma

The clear extracellular fluid of blood

Hematocrit

Packed cell volume; Percentage of whole blood volume composed of red blood cells

Erythrocytes, Platelets, Leukocytes

3 Formed Elements of Blood

Granulocytes, Agranulocytes

2 Categories of Leukocytes

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils

3 Types of Granulocytes

Lymphocytes, Monocytes

2 Types of Agranulocytes

Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes

5 Types of Leukocytes

Viscosity

Resistance to flow

Osmolarity

Total molarity of dissolved particles; Depends on sodium ions, protein, and RBCs

High Osmolarity

Causes fluid absorption into blood, raises BP

Low Osmolarity

Causes fluid to remain in tissues, may result in edema

Serum

Remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed

Fibrinogen

The factor that is missing in serum, but present in plasma

Albumins

Smallest and most abundant plasma proteins; Contributes to viscosity and osmolarity, influences blood pressure, flow and fluid balance

Globulins (Antibodies)

Plasma proteins that provide immune system functions (alpha, beta, and gamma subclasses)

Fibrinogen

Precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots

Albumins, Globulins (Antibodies), Fibrinogen

3 Major Categories of Plasma Proteins for Clotting, Defense, and Transport of Solutes

Nitrogenous Compounds, Nutrients, Gases, Electrolytes

4 Nonprotein Components of Plasma

Urea

Most common waste product of plasma

Sodium

Makes of 90% of plasma cationds

Electrolytes

Nonprotein component of plasma that is a major influence on blood volume and pressure

Hemopoiesis

The production of blood, especially its formed elements

Red Bone Marrow

Produces all seven formed elements of blood

Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSC)

Can multiply continually and are capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines; Formerly called hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells

Colony Forming Units

Specialized stem cells only producing one class of formed element of blood

Myeloid Hemopoiesis

Blood formation in the bone marrow

Lymphoid Hemopoiesis

Blood formation in the lymphatic organs; Widely distributed in lymphoid tissues (thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen, and peyers patches in intestines) and produces lymphocytes

Erythrocytes

Red Blood Cells

Blood Type

Determined by antigens

Erythrocytes

Principle functions are the carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues and pick up carbon dioxide from tissues and bring back to lungs

Erythrocytes

Carry out anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP (indefinitely) so as not to use oxygen needed for tissues

Hemoglobin

Consists of four protein chains (globins) and four heme groups

Four

Number of oxygens each hemoglobin molecule can carry

Gamma

Chains present in fetal hemoglobin that allow extraction of oxygen from the mother's blood stream

45%

Average hematocrit

Erythropoiesis

Production of red blood cells

120 Days

Average lifespan of an erythrocyte

Negative

Feedback control associated with erythrocytes

Hypoxemia, High Altitude, Exercise Increase, Hemorrhaging

4 Stimuli for Increasing Erythropoiesis

Iron

Key nutritional requirement for Erythropoiesis

Iron, Vitamin B12, Folic Acid, Vitamin C, Copper

5 Nutritional Needs for Erythropoiesis

Spleen

The "Erythrocyte Graveyard"

Antigens

Proteins, Glycoproteins,Glycolipids; Complex molecules on surface of cell membrane that are unique to the individual; Used to distinguish self from foreign matter

Antigens, Antibodies

Interactions between these two things are what blood types are based on

Agglutinogens

Antigens on the surface of the red blood cell that is the basis for blood typing

Antibodies

Proteins (gamma globulins) secreted by plasma cells; part of immune response to foreign matter; bind to antigens and mark them for destruction; forms antigen-antibody complexes

Agglutinins

Antibodies in the plasma that bring about transfusion mismatch

Agglutination

Antibody molecule binding to antigens and stick them together; Causes clumping of red blood cells; Responsible for mismatched transfusion reaction

Antigens

Presence determines name of blood type (Example: Blood Type A person has A ___ )

Anti-A, Anti-B

2 Types of Agglutinins

Type O

Universal Donor Blood Type

Type AB

Universal Recipient Blood Type

Rh Factor

Denotes that the blood has the D antigen on RBCs

Water, Proteins, Enzymes, Nutrients, Wastes, Hormones, Gases

7 Components of Plasma

Leukocytes

Least abundant formed element; protect against infectious microorganisms and other pathogens

Leukocytes

White Blood Cells

Granulocytes

Leukocytes with specific granules that contain enzymes and other chemicals employed in defense against pathogens

Neutrophils

Granulocytes with a 3-5 lobed nucleus

Eosinophils

Rosy-orange granulocytes with a bilobed nucleus

Basophils

Least common leukocyte; Granulocyte with large, abundant, violet granules and an S-shaped nucleus

Lymphocytes

Agranulocyte with a uniform dark violet nucleus in bluish cytoplasm (that can be scanty to abundant)

Monocytes

Largest leukocyte; Agranulocyte with a horseshoe shaped nucleus

N - L - M - E - B

Leukocytes in order of Most Abundant to Least Abundant (use first letter, with - between)

Neutrophils

Leukocytes with increased numbers in bacterial infections

Eosinophils

Leukocytes with increased numbers in parasitic infections and allergies

Basophils

Leukocytes with increased numbers in chicken pox, sinusitis, and diabetes

Histamine

Secreted by basophils and speeds flow of blood to an injured area (vasodilator)

Heparin

Secreted by basophils and promotes mobility of other WBCs in the area; prevents clotting (anticoagulant)

Lymphocytes

Leukocytes with increased numbers in diverse infections and immune responses

Monocytes

Leukocytes with increased numbers in viral infections and inflammation

Macrophages

Formed by monocytes when they leave the bloodstream

Leukopoiesis

Production of white blood cells

Myeloblasts, Monoblasts, Lymphoblasts

3 Types of Pluripotent Stem Cells (PPSCs)

Myeloblasts

PPSCs that form neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils (granulocytes)

Monoblasts

PPSCs that form monocytes

Lymphoblasts

PPSCs that give rise to all forms of lymphocytes

Platelets

Small fragments of megakaryocyte cells

True

Platelets are not ___ cells

Pseudopods

Provide platelets with amoeboid movement and phagocytosis

Platelets

Function in reducing blood loss, forming plugs to seal small breaks, secreting clotting factors, initiating formation of clot-dissolving enyme, phagocytizing and destroying bacteria, and secreting growth factors to repair blood vessels

Thrombopoiesis

Production of platelets

Megakaryoblasts

Form megakaryocytes

Megakaryocytes

Live in bone marrow adjacent to blood sinusoids; gigantic cell with a multilobed nucleus

Proplatelets

Long tendrils of cytoplasm that protrude from the megakaryocytes into the blood sinusoids

Hemostasis

The cessation of bleeding

Vascular Spasm, Platelet Plug Formation, Coagulation

3 Hemostatic Mechanisms

Vascular Spasm

Prompt constriction of a broken vessel; First step of hemostasis

Platelet Plug Formation

Second step of hemostasis; Platelet pseudopods stick to damaged vessel and other platelets, platelets degranulate

Positive

Feedback cycle associated with platelet plug formation

Coagulation

Last and most effective defense against bleeding; need to be quick but accurate

Fibrin

Goal of coagulation is to convert plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble ___ threads to form framework of clo

Procoagulants

Clotting factors

Calcium

Required for both extrinsic and intrinsic pathway

Extrinsic Pathway

Factors released by damaged tissue begin cascade; Damaged vessels and parivascular tissue

Intrinsic Pathway

Factors found only in blood begin cascade; Platelet degranulation

Positive

Type of feedback involved when thrombin speeds up formation of prothombin activator

Factor X - Prothrombin Activator - Prothrombin - Thrombin - Fibrinogen - Fibrin

6 Steps of Completion of Coagulation (In Order)

Thrombin

Converts fibrinogen into fibrin

30

Minutes it takes for clot retraction

Fibrinolysis

Dissolution of a clot

Plasmin

A fibrin-dissolving enzyme that breaks up the clot; "the clot buster"

Plasminogen

Converted into plasmin by kallikrein

Prostacyclin

Platelet repellant that coats the endothelium of blood vessels

Heparin

Natural anticoagulant that interferes with formation of prothrombin activator (from basophils and mast cells)

Antithrombin

Natural anticoagulant that deactivates thrombin before it can act on fibrinogen (from liver)

Glucose, Protein

2 Most Common Nutrients in Blood Plasma

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