An abnormally low amount of hemoglobin or a low number of red blood cells
The largest blood vessel of the cardiovascular system
A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed.
A vessel that carries blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body
Complicated disease in which a buildup of fatty deposits within the walls of the arteries
Electronic device surgically implanted that emits electrical signals that trigger normal heartbeats.
atrioventricular (AV) node
It generates electrical impulses that primarily cause the ventricles to contract.
atrium (plural, atria)
Chamber that receives blood returning to the vertebrate heart.
A type of connective tissue with a fluid matrix called plasma in which blood cells are suspended.
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues
A network of capillaries that infiltrate every organ and tissue in the body.
The alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart.
The volume of blood pumped per minute by the left ventricle of the heart.
Diseases of the heart and blood vessels
Closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network of arteries, capillaries, and veins
Consists of the heart, which pumps blood, and the blood vessels that transport it
closed circulatory system
Circulatory systems in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed
The activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen
Inactive form of the plasma protein that is converted to the active form fibrin
When one or more blood vessels are blocked, heart muscle cells will quickly die
High blood pressure
inferior vena cava
Large vein that drains blood from the lower body.
Cancer of the blood-forming tissues
open circulatory system
Arrangement of internal transport in which blood bathes the organs directly
Also called the sinoatrial (SA) node.
Eat bacteria, foreign proteins that enter the body through wounds, and the debris from other body cells
Liquid matrix of blood in which the cells are suspended
Small enucleated blood cell important in blood clotting
Carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
Branch of the circulatory system that supplies the lungs
Return the arterialized blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Rhythmic stretching of the arteries caused by the pressure of blood
red blood cell
superior vena cava
Large vein that channels oxygen-poor blood from the upper body.
Branch of the circulatory system that supplies all body organs
Stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood.
A vessel that returns blood to the heart.
A heart chamber that pumps blood out of a heart
A vessel that conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein.
white blood cell
Immunity conferred by recovering from an infectious disease
Antigens that cause allergies
Abnormal sensitivities to antigens in our surroundings
An acute, life-threatening, allergic response
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism
Transmembrane versions of antibody molecules that B cells and T cells use to recognize specific antigens
Region of the antibody molecule responsible for the antibody's recognition-and-binding function
Localized regions on the surface of an antigen molecule
antigen-presenting cell (APCs)
cells that ingest bacteria and viruses and present them to helper T cells
Drugs that interfere with histamine's action and give temporary relief from an allergy
An immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against itself
Lymphocytes that secrete antibodies
Type of immunity that functions in defense against viruses inside host cells and against tissue transplants
Mechanism that determines specificity and accounts for antigen memory in the immune system
A set of about 20 serum proteins that carry out a cascade of steps leading to the lysis of microbes
cytotoxic T cell (TC)
Type of lymphocyte that kills infected cells and cancer cells
helper T cell (TH)
Type of T cell that is required by some B cells to help them make antibodies
Substance released by injured cells that causes blood vessels to dilate during an inflammatory response
Type of immunity that fights bacteria and viruses in body fluids with antibodies that circulate in blood
Protects the body by attacking foreign substances, infectious microbes, and cancer cells
Resistance to specific invaders through the immune system
Any deficiency in the ability to produce an effective immune response
Line of defense triggered by penetration of the skin or mucous membranes
Chemical messenger, produced by virus-infected cells and capable of helping other cells resist the virus
Colorless fluid, derived from interstitial fluid, in the lymphatic system of vertebrate animals
System of vessels and lymph nodes, separate from the circulatory system
A white blood cell
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
A large set of cell surface antigens encoded by a family of genes
Cell that produces histamine
Defensive protein produced by cells descended from a single cell
Leukocyte that is able to migrate into tissues and transform into a macrophage
natural killer (NK) cell
Nonspecific defensive cell that attacks tumor cells and destroys infected body cells
Most abundant type of leukocyte
Foreign antigens that are bound by the special protein belonging to the macrophage
Temporary immunity obtained by acquiring ready-made antibodies
Protein secreted by a cytotoxic T cell that lyses an infected cell
A derivative of B cells that secretes antibodies
primary immune response
The initial immune response to an antigen
secondary immune response
The immune response elicited when an animal encounters the same antigen at some later time
Special protein that belongs to the macrophage
Cell that produces perforins
A procedure that presents the immune system with a harmless variant or derivative of a pathogen