The Evolution and Diversity of Plants

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(7 Important Characteristics of) Plants

1. Sporic Meiosis 2.Multicellular 3.Dominant Diploid Sporophyte(except Bryophyte) 4.Photosynthetic 5.Heteromorphic Alternation of Generations 6.Cell Walls=Cellulose 7.Store Excess Carbohydrates as Starch

Cuticle

Waxy covering on plants that minimizes the loss of water

4 Characteristics of Bryophytes

1. Vascular System Not Well Developed 2.Dominant Haploid Generation 3.Need H20 for Sperm Cells to Swim 4.Sporophyte Generation Metabolically Dependent on Gametophyte Generation

Bryophyte Phyla and Descriptions

1.Hepatophyta-Liverworts
2.Anthocerophyta-Hornworts
3.Bryophyta-Mosses

sporophyte

generation begins with fertilization and produces seeds

gametangia

gamete-producing structures located at the top of plant

antheridia

sperm-producing gametangia
-produce a large # of sperm

archegonium

egg-producing gametangia
-produce a single egg

foot

area of attachment to parent gametophyte

seta

stalk

capsule

where meiosis occurs and haploid spores produced

protonema

mature gametophyte

spores

germinate into a filamentous protonema

sporophyte

gives rise to haploid spores thru meiosis
--> multicellular haploid phase

gametophyte (generation)

-produce gametes thru mitosis and differentiation
--multicellular haploid phase

sperm

male gamete

ovum

female gamete

(2 Phyla of) Seedless Vascular (Plants)

1.Lycophyta
2.Pterophyta

Lycophyta
(characteristics and examples?)

-homosporous
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-true leafs and true roots
-well-developed but primitive vasculature
-ex: Club Mosses, ground pines, quillworks

Pterophyta
(characteristics, phylum, examples)

-homosporous
-need H20 for sperm to swim
-well-developed vascular system
-no true roots or leaves--> photoseynthetic stem
-gametangia located on underside
-Phyla: Psilotum=psilophytes, Equisetum=horsetails&scouring rushes
-Ex: whisk ferns, scouring rushes, true ferns

xylem

conduction of H20 and minerals

phloem

conduction of organic minerals

rhizoids

underground stems-horizontal

fronds

leaves-large and divided in2 leaflets

sori

circular structure that consists of sporangia

prothallus

-heart-shaped
-haploid gametophyte generation

rhizoids

anchorage and absorption of minerals

Seed Plants 2 Major Groups

Angiosperm and Gymnosperm

Gymnosperm
(def and phyla?)

Naked Seed
Phylum Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, Coniferophyta

Cycadophyta

cycads superficially resemble palm trees short in stature

Gnetophyta

-Ex: Ephedra, Welwitzchia, Gnetum
-most closely related to angiosperms b/c of similarities in vascular system and female gametophyte

Ginkgophyta

-tolerant to atmospheric pollution
-Ex: ginkgo biloba= "maidenhair tree"

Coniferophyta

-most abundant gymnosperms
-Ex: pines, firs, spruces, larch, cypress, jupiter
-nutricionally dependenet on sporophyte generation

integuments

protective layers of ovule

seed

mature ovule

pollen tube

delivers sperm cell to egg

microspore

-produced by microsporangium
-male gametophyte

No Vascular System

Rely on diffusion --> Must diffuse everything they pick up

vascular system

actively transport things throughout plant

calyx

sepals (collectively)

corolla

petals (collectively)

carpel(pistil)

stigma + style + ovary

stamen

anther + filament

actinomorphic

radially symetric

hypogyny

Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens are attached to the receptacle at the base of the ovary, which is superior (that is, free from the calyx).

superior

all the other parts are attached below the ovary

zygomorphic

bilaterally symetric

epigyny

Floral organization in which the sepals, petals, and stamens apparently grow from the top of the ovary, which is inferior. (that is, completely or partially attached to the calyx).

receptacle

top of the flowering stem

(2 Developmental Achievements of) Seed Plants

1. free water is no longer necessary for sexual repro to occur
2. the embryonic plant has been provided with some stored food reserves and packaged in a protective coat(seed coat)

(Phylum) Anthophyta

Angiosperms
-ovule is not exposed

stamen

pollen-producing structures

pericarp

fruit wall
-exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp

monocots

-flower=multiples of 3
-parallel veins
-vascular bundles in stem scattered
-one embryonic leaf

dicot

-flower=multiples of 4 or 5
-net-like veins
-vascular bundles arranged in a circle
-2 cotyledon

green alga

Plants are said to have evolved from an ancestral ______ _____ -- a member of the Phylum Chlorophyta.

pigment

Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic ______.

Accesssory pigments

Chlorophyll b, caroteoids, and xanthophylls are ______ ________.

starch

Plants store excess carbohydrates in the form of ______ which is stored in chloroplasts.

cellulose

Plants have a cell wall that is composed primarily of _______.

sporic

Plants exhibit ______ meiosis.

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