aLL the physics vocab for the june FINAL

102 terms

acceleration

the rate at wich velocity changes

average speed

total distance divided by time interval

elapsed time

the time that has passed since the beginning of a fall

free fall

an object falling only affected by the force of gravity

instantaneous speed

the speed at any instant

rate

a quantity divided by time

relative

movement with respect to something

speed

a measure of how fast something is moving

velocity

rate of speed and direction

Newton's First Law

All objects continue in a state of rest or of motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless it changes due to forces exerted upon it.

law of inertia

newtons first law

kilograms

mass is measured in...

mass

the quantity of matter in an object

weight

the force due to gravity on an object

newtons

forces are measured in ...

net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object

normal force

a force that counteracts the weight

equilibrium

occurs when the net force is zero

a push or a pull

friction

the force that acts between materials that touch as they move past each other

inertia

the property of a body t resist change

inversely

two values change in opposite directions

a=f/m

air resistance

the friction acting on something moving through air

free body diagram

a diagram showing all the forces acting on an object

terminal speed

when acceleration terminates; air resistance = weight

interaction

a force is part of an ...

Newton's third law

when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exert an equal and opposite force on the first object

action force

1st force in an interaction

reaction force

2nd force in an interaction

electrostatics

electricity at rest

electrical forces

an attracting and repelling force that is billions of times stronger than gravity

charge

a fundamental property which causes attracting and repelling

conservation of charge

electrons are neither created nor destroyed, they are transferred is

Coulomb

the standard unit of charge

conductors

materials in which electrons travel with ease

insulators

materials in which electrons are more tightly bound and cannot move feely

induction

when something is created in another object without contact

semiconductors

materials which sometimes behave as conductors and sometimes as insulators

super conductors

metals which when can acquire infinite conductivity

F=kq1q2/dsquared

vector quantity

a quantity that require both magnitude and direction for a complete description

scalar quantity

a quantity that is completely described by magnitude only

resultant

the result of adding two vectors

components

the two vectors that can be substituted for a resultant

projectiles

they follow a curved path (spaceships, stone thrown in air)

satellite

a projectile fast enough to fall around the earth

momentum

inertia in motion (mv)

impulse

how long a force acts (F change in t)

conserved

when a quantity does not change

law of conservation of momentum

In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged

elastic collision

When objects collide without being permanently deformed and momentum is transferred from the first object to the second object

inelastic collision

when colliding objects become tangled or couple together

work

the application of a force and the movement of something by that force (Fd)

Joule

measurement of work; a Newton-meter

power

the rate at which work is done

watt

unit of power; J/s

mechanical energy

the energy due to the position or movement of something

potential energy

energy stored because of the position of an object

energy of motion

work energy theorem

work = change in energy

law of conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed. It can be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.

efficiency

ratio of useful work output to total work input

circuit

a complete path on which charge can flow

series circuit

a circuit with a single path on which for electrons to flow (more bulbs=current decreases, resistance increases)

parallel circuit

a circuit that forms branches, each of which is a separate path for flow of charge (more bulbs=current increases, resistance decreases)

schematic diagrams

electric circuits are expressed in the form of these diagrams

magnetic poles

these produce magnetic forces

magnetic field

the space around a magnet in which a magnetic force is exerted

magnetic domains

clusters of aligned atoms which cause iron to be magnetized

electromagnet

a current carrying coil of wire with many loops

galvanometer

a sensitive current indicating instrument

Einstein

created the theory of Special Relativity

Faraday and Henry

discovered that electric current could be produced in a wire

Tesla

created AC which led to creation of transformers

electromagnetic induction

inducing voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor

Faraday's law

The induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops and the rate at which the magnetic field changes within those loops

generator

when a moving coil in a magnet causes mechanical energy to be changed to electrical energy

transformer

an instrument that when using AC allows for changing of voltage; composed of a secondary and primary coil and an iron core

Maxwell

discovered that we see electromagnetic waves

I

variable for current

V

variable for voltage

R

variable for resistance

unit for Amperes

unit for Voltage

ohms omega

unit for resistance

electric potential energy

energy charge possesses due to its position

electric potential

electric potential energy per charge

volt

the unit of voltage or electric potential

voltage

electric potential--electric potential energy per charge

electric field

the space around every electric charge

potential difference

charge flows when there is a ..............

potential difference

difference in voltage between ends of a conductor

electric current

the flow of electric charge

voltage source

something that provides a potential difference

electric resistance

the resistance that a conductor offers that changes with conductivity, length and thickness of a wire

ohms

electric resistance is measured in.......

ohm's law

current=voltage/resistance

direct current

current that always flows in one direction

alternating current

electrons change their direction of flow

electric power

the rate at which electrical energy changes

unit for energy