(1976-1982) Argentinean years of harsh authoritarian rule and rightist death squads followed, which resulted not only in the near elimination of the Communists guerrillas but also kidnapping, torturing and/or killing of some 30,000 Argentine citizens during a period of state terrorism.
Latin American plan to shrink state expenditures (debt) as much as possible and thereby minimize government's interference in the free play of market forces. Laissez Faire Government. Slashing public funding for education, health care, public transport and other areas while permitting the unimpeded flow of foreign capital. Proposed free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy. Big foreign intervention means countries can buy Latin America out
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
(1948) (1934 - present) leftist political party in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century. Democratic Insurgencies and Economic Crisis. Gets corrupt in 1960 from massive influx of money. Upsets students and middle class who begin to demonstrate and march against the them and the Tlatelolco Massacre occurs
1968, The largest single massacre of civilians by government troops in North America since WWII. Entailed the most destructive use of force against Mexican people by their government on student protestors at National University and Tlatelolco square. The massacre became an important historical memory for modern Mexican political dissidents advocating political reform in the one-party rule of Mexican politics. Anywhere from 30-300 people killed, happened ten days before Olympics
President of Argentina (1945-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very popular among the urban poor. In charge for 28 years. Goes from agriculture to industry. United States and European investors dictated markets in Argentina. Doing well with foreign investments but couldn't pay debts and inflation continued to increase.
In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic cost, and lost 225 lives, but had much popular patriotic support for Thatcher. Argentina wanted to reclaim the land for support but Britain won.
1970-1973 Elected President of Chile. a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup lead by General Augusto Pinochet. Assassination raid led by Pinochet believed to have been funded by US.
1973-1990, He was the Chilean dictator who was responsible for instituting the reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was backed by the US and was carried out through a coup against a democratically elected, leftist leader. At the behest of the advice given by the group, heforcefully transformed the Chilean economy into one of the freest market economies that the world had even seen. He got rid of civil rights and political freedoms. Ruled with an iron fist, Catholic and used dirty war to get rid of opposing people.
an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a hereditary dictatorship, their influence exceeding their combined 43 years in the de facto presidency. They ultimately fell a revolution led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front. Suppressed trade unions, community organizers, and left wing organizers. Pocketed foreign aid when the 1972 Managua earthquake struck. Largest drug (cocaine) exporters to the United States.
This was a revolution in which a group of Creoles led by a native of Bluefields raided a Somoza-owned business to gain access to food, guns and money before heading off to join Sandinista fighters.Uprising against Somoza family. Not for aligning with Russia or US. For grassroots democracy and a mixed economy. Were unable to fund their programs because the Sandinistas had to fight off Somoza family.
Anti-Sandinista fighters in the Nicaraguan civil war. They were secretly supplied with American military aid, paid for with money the United States clandestinely made selling arms to Iran. Contra War was that the United States agreed not to be involved with the Nicaraguan war between Sandinistas and Somoza's military while the US actually used money gained from selling arms to Iran, despite trade embargo, to fund the Somoza family and their fight against the Sandanistas.
(1933-1944) & (1952-1959) was the military general President of Cuba from and and was closely allied with the United States government, and American economic interests. At the end of his rule, he was incredibly repressive, although constantly supported by the United States, until he was overthrown by Fidel Castro. Widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans. Eventual defeat by rebels under the command of Che Guevara at the Battle of Santa Clara on January 1st, 1959
(1959 - 1976) Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure. This unsuccessful invasion pushes Castro to become a Communist
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later. 1. Isolated Cuba from everyone, Russia doesn't want to start war with US, US doesn't want war with Russia. 2. US takes upper hand over Russia because Russia backs down. 3. Communications between Russia and US gets better
(1928-1967) an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution, supporting Castro's party as the overthrow Batista. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous counter-cultural symbol. Assisted Cuban Forces by training them for repelling the Bay of Pigs invasion.
Armed revolt (26th of July Movement) by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement against the regime of (United State's Proxy leader and) Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959. Batista was finally ousted on 1 January 1959, and was replaced by a revolutionary government led by Castro; First Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965. Castro takes over with problems- foreign companies keep involvement. Inspired to become communist after Bay of Pigs
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues. Nkrumah faced many challenges: first, to learn to govern; second, to unify the four territories of the Gold Coast; third, to win his nation's complete independence from the United Kingdom. Nkrumah was successful at all three goals. Within six years of his release from prison, he was the leader of an independent nation.
Convention People's Party (CPP)
Ruled over Ghana when it became the first post-colonial independent country in black Africa. It was organized by Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana. Organized nonviolent protests in support of independence and helped to convince the British to give up their colony. Under Nkrumah's personal rule. This was the only legal party during much of Ghana's early years of independence.
West African Christian culture in the North that created the Baifran state to fight for independence against Nigerian government. Greatly celebrates birth of a son.
these people spoke a common language and originally belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna in what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria. favored by the British when the British controlled them
one of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups, are predominantly Muslim and live mostly in the north
Republic of Biafra
(30 May 1967 to 15 January 1970) A Nigerian ethnic group that declared independence in 1960s in oil district. Led to unrest in the rest of the country. A separatist movement led to three year civil war with estimated one million casualties. This led to lasting competition between ethnic groups for economic and political power in their individual regions. Composed of the Southern Christian Igbos and led to the Nigerian Civil war.
(1967-1970) The Nigerian Civil War, Nigeria vs Biafran state. Biafran state was established by Igbos, the Christians in Southern Nigeria, against the Muslim North. A tragic and bloody civil war pitted elements of independent Africa's best national armies against each other. The larger federal forces slowly chipped away at Biafran State. The estimated death toll soared above one million. the overwhelming majoroty of who were Igbo civilians, mostly refugees, who died of starvation. Biafrans surrendered in January of 1970 to the Nigerian State, which united all of Nigeria.
Kenyan Nationalist who used strong leadership to help gain Kenya's independence, and became the first president; presented Kikuyu grievances to the British government in London. Leader of Kenyan African Union
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
Kenya's dominant party from the early 1960s to 2002. It played an important role in uniting people behind the idea of independence for Kenya and was for many years the only legal party in the country. Led by Jomo Kenyatta.
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952 to 1960) an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonialist rule. The core of the resistance was formed by members of the Kikuyu ethnic group, along with smaller numbers of Embu and Meru. The uprising failed militarily, though it may have hastened Kenyan independence. It created a rift between the white colonial community in Kenya and the Home Office in London that set the stage for Kenyan independence in 1963. Practiced and preached Pan-Africanism
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
African National Congress (ANC)
A democratic organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
(March 21, 1960) township, by Johannesburg. Pan Africanist Congress led campaign of blacks to surrender themselves for arrest and led to small clashes and then the police firing, killing and wounding up to 70 African non-violent protestors.
South Africa, Leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democratic constitution being written in 1996.
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protest and responses from the government that helped end apartheid. Trying to teach English to the students and the Africans were upset
South African Founder of the Black Consciousness Movement, he inspired blacks in South Africa to express their pride as a people and to confront the apartheid system as a group. His death in police custody angered members of all races and ultimately served to intensify the struggle against the South African regime both inside and outside the country's borders
The leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society.
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the African National Congress and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and worked with the ANC to end apartheid
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met in Crimea. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War. Roosevelt asked for Soviet support against Japan; Churchill pressed for free elections and democratic governments in Eastern Europe; Stalin demanded a Soviet sphere of political influence in Eastern and Central Europe, for USSR's national security strategy.
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held in Brandenburg, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eastern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism. Failed in Hungary where rebels attempted to usurp power from the communists but were not aided by the US
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Communist Information Bureau
An international organization of communist parties, founded and controlled by the Soviet Union in 1947 and dissolved in 1956. The Cominform published propaganda touting international communist solidarity but was primarily a tool of Soviet foreign policy.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
linked eastern European aid and recovery from Russia to the centralized command economies of communism. COMECON. Controlled by the Soviets to integrate economies of Eastern European nations and Russia. (All Soviet Union Nations have same economy)
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S. and Great Britain mounted air lifts which became so intense that, at their height, an airplane was landing in West Berlin every few minutes. West Germany was a republic under France, the U.S. and Great Britain. Berlin was located entirely within Soviet-controlled East Germany.
Successful effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to the Berlin Blockade
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
Russia's treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania in response to NATO
One hundred more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, following the death of Joseph Stalin, and Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1958 to 1964. He was responsible for the De-Stalinization of the USSR, as well as several liberal reforms ranging from agriculture to foreign policy.
was a report by soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, which criticized Joseph Stalin, particularly for the purges of the military and the upper Party and the development of Stalin's personality cult. His main ideal was to maintain the support of Lenin communists.
A rebellion against the government and its soviet policies. It started with a student demonstration and then other people started joining as they marched through Budapest. They wanted political change. so they withdrew from the warsaw pact and pledged to establish free elections.
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
ICBM, an extremely long-range land based missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead from the homeland of one superpower to the homeland of the other. United States and USSR competed for nuclear dominance with those.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
U-2 Spy Plane Incident
marking the deterioration of US relations with Soviet Union, this incident occurred when a US U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. Although denying the plane's purpose at first, it was forced to admit the plane's role as a surveillance aircraft.
A fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, built in 1961 to prevent East German citizens from traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 symbolized the end of the Cold War. This wall was both a deterrent to individuals trying to escape and a symbol of repression to the free world.
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia to restore Communism
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent socialism. However, The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need to maintain socialism (and the Soviet UNION). We will maintain communism.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT) - a series of meetings in the 1970s, in which leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons. Established during Detente.
the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe. 35 states (US, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra) signed the declaration in an attempt to improve Western relations with the communist bloc.
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression, first non communism trading union. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. Domestic Initiative- Glasnost, Perestroika, and Democratization. The main reason for his lessening of pro-communistic and Marxist ideologies were due to the failing economy in Russia.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union. Personal freedom- unbans media.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a free market based economy and society. Liberalize Communism in Russia. Fixed agricultural deficit. 1985-86.
Revolutions of 1989
Collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc. People start to rebel against Gorbachev and his liberal reforms. Bloodless revolution
Collapse of the Soviet Union
gradual process that was characterized by many republics of the Soviet Union declaring their independence and being recognized as sovereign nation states
an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
the policy of democratization identified by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 as an essential component of perestroika. Part of a gradual shift away from a vanguard party approach toward an acceptance of liberal democratic norms. Institutes voting for leader and de-centralize control of the economy
1947-1962 The collapse of colonial empires. practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. Inspired by self determination and weakness of Western Nations
1948, latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula. Korean War began in 1950 when North Korea crossed the line. Korea was divided because of post WWII agreements. (previously Japanese territory).
After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea. This section came under soviet influence and became communist. Since the 1940's, it has become one of the most isolated and dictatorial societies in the world. Kim Jong IL the leader is an uncompromising Communist and is ruthlessly oppressive. Their economic collapse and its insistence on maintaining a huge military are threatening mass starvation for its people.
the antagonism between the Soviet Union and the US led to the establishment of 2 separate Korean governments. This democratic country was overruled by the US and Syngman Rhee was installed as president.
1950-1953 The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control. Beginning with China --> Korea --> Vietnam
South East Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO an international organization for collective defense primarily created to block communism gains in Southeast Asia. Signed by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States. (NATO for use in the Pacific)
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the French fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable. When young, attempted to petition for freedom but ignored by French
1946 - 1954 an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
1959-1975, a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Proxy war between the Soviet Union and the US.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
a network of jungle paths winding from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia into South Vietnam, used as a military route by North Vietnam to supply the Vietcong during the Vietnam War.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism as they briefly took but lost Saigon, but a philosophical victory. Americans reacted accordingly, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
1973, The agreement for ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam after a decade of war, Vietnam finally indicated that it wished to cease fire with the US. The agreement was a success.
Chinese Civil War
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Between KMT and CCP, and the Chinese Communist Party were victorious over the KMT.
People's Republic of China
October 1949, Communist government of China at end of long civil war between the Nationalists (KMT, Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek) and the Communists (CCP under Mao Zedong). The Kuomintang armies had been routed and withdrew to Taiwan.
Great Leap Forward
1958, China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed because of lack of incentive to work and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960. Mass industrialization, Mass irrigation, and Mass mobilization. Theory of Productive Forces- Marxist idea that ensures a surplus prior to socialism (people must work for nothing to get something), Forced.
1965-1967, Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation. Intended to eliminate counterrevolutionary elements in the government. Had students kill teachers and parents when they disagreed. Encouraged youth to denounce and rebel against capitalist leaders of China
Served in various positions from 1959-1989, Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong. Purge of intellectuals, willing to make far range economic reforms for wealth but unwilling to make political reforms. Opened Mao's "closed door policy". Put down student demonstration on Tienanmen square. Wants Western ideas without Westernization
1989, Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness from the Communist government. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life. Censorship was imposed and repressive policies were established with the army turning on civilians.
Partition of India and Pakistan
Pre-1930, public wanted an united India. Post-1930, Muslims wanted a state of their own in fear that Muslim communities would face discrimination and danger in a predominantly Hindu India. The borders of the new states were not finalized which resulted in massive migrations and deaths. Kashmir wanted to be independent of both nations. A war was raged over Kashmir which resulted in the border that came to be known as the Line of Control. India and Pakistan attempted to join but differences in culture, religion, language, and overpopulation prevent it
Served from 1947-1964. Independent "non aligned" Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first prime minister. Elevated lower castes and status of women. Believed the First World was NATO, Second World was the Warsaw Pact, and the third were all the "non-aligned" nations. "Mediator" of Communism vs. Capitalism
an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India. Hindu ruler of mostly Muslim nation created tension.
Served from 1966-1977. Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first female prime minister. She was also prime minister of India. There was a lot of religious tension between the Hindus and Sikhs. In previous matters, Indira had favored the Sikhs. They were her body guards, but when she sided against them in 1984 over a temple issue, she was assassinated by her own bodyguard.
Formerly East Pakistan. a Muslim republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south. independent in 1972. India surrounded by both Bangladesh and Pakistan. War breaks out but Bangladesh is victorious
a Pakistani politician who chaired the Pakistan People's Party and the first woman elected to lead a Muslim State. She has been elected twice and was Pakistan's first and only female prime minister. She heavily focused on education and women's rights. Administration accused of corruption
a movement that calls for unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. A large principal of Gamal Abdal Nasser's rule. Ba'th Party established and preached Pan-Arabism
Formally called the League of Arab States, includes Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq. Formed with British encouragement, as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1918-1970, Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Monarch Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies. Stood up to the European powers (Great Britain and France) and created Aswan Dam. Resigned after loss in Six-Day War.
built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power. Established by Nasser.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
1979, A nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Amin) government against the Mujahideen (Muslim) Guerrilla resistance. Anti communist guerrillas received support from US and Great Britain; USSR withdrew→ unsuccessful.
Muslim fighters in Afghanistan. The best-known were the various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups, which initially rebelled against the incumbent pro-Soviet (DRA) government during the late 1970s. Supported by the United States during war against Russia.
(1978-1979) a revolution against Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader. Shah lost to the Ayatollah. Traditional Shiite Muslims beat the Modern Muslims
Mohammad Reza Shah
September 16, 1941 - February 11, 1979. Iranian Revolution--was the monarch of Iran until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi of the Iranian monarchy. Reforms (white revolution) made Iran more modern but didn't care for public opinion
The White Revolution
1963, Iran "a step towards modernization," a far-reaching series of reforms by the Shah Mohammad Reza . Muhammad Reza Shah's series of economic and social reforms built especially to strengthen those classes that supported the traditional system and transform Iran into a global power. Calm society down by awarding gifts to natives. Part of Iranian Counter Revolution.
The secret police, domestic security and intelligence service established by Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi by recommendation of the UK government and with the help of the CIA, and Israel's Mossad. It was one of the main reasons that the government after the fall of the Shah so greatly opposed the US and held the embassy hostage for over a year. People were against them because of their overbearing nature and violent mannerisms.
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
At first was sent into exile, He came back and established a parallel government. Defeat of Revolutionary Guard during the air force mutiny led to mass overruns of army bases, secret police HQ, and other police departments by protestors, and were looted. The Shah's state was essentially smashed. Initial provisional government was a coalition between secular nationalists and Islamic fundamentalist. Very quickly became clear that had had the power. Created Council of Islamic Revolution and served as head. Traditional Shiite Muslim
a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state and address threats to its continued existence
A displaced group of Arabs who lived or still live in the area formerly called Palestine and now called Israel. Attempted to get recognized as their own nation but were relocated by Israel.
UNSCOP (The United Nations Special Committee On Palestine)
1947, Committee by the General Assembly to propose a solution to the Palestine problem. The majority report recommended the formation of two politically independent states with an economic union. Region favored Israel because of resources native in the region. This plan was approved by the General Assembly by a narrow majority over the objection of the Arab and Muslim states
UN Partition Plane for Palestine was a resolution adopted in 1947 by the General Assembly of the UN (UNSCOP). It recommended the end of the British Mandate for Palestine and the partition of the territory into 2 states, Jewish and Arab, with the Jerusalem/Bethlehem area being super special protection by the UN. The resolution also contained a plan for an economic union between the proposed states, and a plan for the protection also contained a plan for an economic union between the proposed states, and a plan for the protection of religious and minority rights.
Arab-Israeli War (1948 )
War which took place from May 1948 to January 1949. It was fought over the disputed land of Palestine and culminated in a Jewish victory. Referred to in Israel as the War of Independence, the war was a response by neighboring Arab nations to Israel's declaration of independence on May 14, 1948. The war ended with the establishment of the Jewish nation of Israel, and it turned large numbers of Palestinians into refugees from the land of their birth, conflict went through six day war
1956 Suez Crisis
Arab-Israeli Conflict--this crisis unfolded in 1956 when Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Canal, provoking a joint intervention of British, French, and Israeli forces.
1967 Israel attacks Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel won and got the west bank including east jerusalem from jordan, the golan heights from syria, and the sinai peninsula and gaza strip from egypt. United States and Soviet Union tried to diffuse tensions. Israel defeated the much more numerous armies of Arab countries after the air strike and occupied the Gaza Strip
The West Bank
is a landlocked territory and is the eastern Part of the Palestinian territories on the west bank of the River Jordan. It was captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in June, 1967.
The Gaza Strip
a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Egypt on the south-west and Israel on the south, east and north. The area is recognized internationally as part of the Palestinian territories. Actual control of the area is in the hands of Hamas.
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
1964, under the Arab League to restrict Palestinian resistance to ensure that the Arab League was in control of the movement. Yassar Arafat becomes the chairman in 1969. an umbrella organization which included different resistance groups. Helped to reestablish the Palestinian dimension in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Refused to endorse UN Resolution 242. Built support among the inhabitants of the occupied West Bank. Worked to create a Palestinian consciousness. Helped to bring attention to the Arab-Israeli Conflict as one between the state of Israel and the Palestinians.
Arab-Israeli Conflict--known as the father of Palestinian nationalism, he was the leader of the PLO and the Palestinian Autonomous Region in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank city of Jericho. An enigmatic figure who was a political and military tactician of unrivaled skill, he led Palestine in war-through defeat and victory-and in peace. Ultimately, for better or worse, his legacy has to include bringing the attention of the world to the Palestinian cause
Former President of Egypt (1st Arab leader to recognize and make peace with Israel) He was assassinated Oct. 6 1981 for making peace with Israel.
1973 Yom Kippur War
fought from October 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. The war began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur which coincided with the Muslim holy month of Ramadan. The conflict led to a near-confrontation between the 2 nuclear superpowers, the US and the Soviet Union, both of whom initiated massive resupply efforts to their allies during the war.
Camp David Talks
September 17, 1978 signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem following 12 days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The 2 frame work agreements were signed at the White House, and were witnessed by US President Jimmy Carter. The second led directly to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty and in sadat and Begin's shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize. Little progress was achieved on the first however, A Framework for Peace in the Middle East, which dealt with the Palestinian territories.
1982 Lebanon War
June 6th, 1982 when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon, the government of Israel launched the military operation after the Abu Nidal Organization's assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the UK, Shlomo Argov. Israel is victorious and successfully gets rid of Palestine Liberation Organization.
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
An agreement in 1993 in which Israeli prime minister Rabin granted Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.