Visual characteristics of oral communication include
Visual characteristics of manual communication include
Anything with signs
what is speechreading?
The process of identifying articulatory gestures and other visual cues to aid in speech understanding.
Normal speech is spoken at a rate of
Normal speech is 15 phonemes per second. Much faster than visual system can keep up with.
Exaggerated gestures do what to perception?
The visual system processes at a rate of...
8-10 discrete units/sec
A good speaker
Speaks at a normal rate
Uses appropriate facial expressions
Avoids simultaneous activities
Faces the listener and does not cover lips.
Lipstick helps to enhance readability, as does limited facial hair.
How much of what you produce is visually distinct?
The smallest visually distinct unit is called a
Visemes are determined by
the place of articulation and the shape of the mouth.
Several phonemes may be contained in
a single viseme
number of distinct viseme groups is
Woodward & Barber (1960) found how many viseme groups?
four groups, bilabials, labiodentals, non-labials, and rounded labials.
Binnie (1976) found how many viseme groups?
nine groups each containing at least 2 phonemes.
What types of sounds do people with presbycusis lose first?
high frequency consonants. Visually consonants are earsier to lip read though.
Can sounds within a viseme group be differentiated from one another?
no (E.g. /b,p,m/).
Sounds that look the same on the lips are called
What percent English sounds are homophenous in conversation.
vowel Visemes are based on what traits
Liprounding (tea vs two)
Vertical lip separation (key vs car)
Size of opening (bird vs sad)
Vertical movement (tie vs lay)
Size of opening for second nucleus (out vs at)
What are the environmental factors for visual cues
distance = best is 5ft. Beyond 20ft performance drops.
visual angle = should be 45 degrees
visual interference = no yawning
lighting = shouldn't shine directly on the face of the talker
How does gender affect visual skills?
females have a higher speech read score, but not by a lot.
How does intelligence affect speech reading?
What are visual acuity and visual perception measured with?
Visual acuity is measured with a Snellen chart.
Visual pattern perception is measured with a contrast sensitivity chart.
What is a Snellen chart?
Uses big and small letters. If a patient sees 20/200, the smallest letter that they can see at 20 feet could be seen by a normal eye at 200 feet.
What is the Pelli-Robson Contrast Sensitivity Test?
there is less and less contrast as you get lower in the chart. Score of 2.0 is normal. 1.0 or higher is needed to read.
Limitations of Assessment?
Absence of auditory cues
Unnatural facial gestures
Scored on percent correct words, sentences
No way to differentiate between good vs bad speechreaders or mark progress
What is the Analytic method
focus on the individual units or parts.
Present two word initial consonant. "ba" and "pa" same or different?
Bruhn or Jena methods of analytic teaching
syllable drills over and over.
What is the synthetic method
focus on the whole meaningful unit
Is analytic or synthetic teaching better?
A combination of the two is the best way to go.
Founder of synthetic teaching?
Aural method of teaching
maximum use of the auditory channel
Hollistic method of teaching
Having children understand they need to use visual and oral system to communicate. It's more of a motivational process where children take responsibilty
Visual cues include what?
Facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language.