Biology 2-4 Chemical Reactions and Enzymes

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2/13/12

chemical reaction

a process that changes, or transforms one set of chemicals into another

reactants

the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction

products

the elements or compunds produced by a chemical reactoin

chemical bonds, compounds

chemical reactions involve changes in the ________ ______ that join atoms in ___________

release energy

Chemical reactions that ______ ______ often occur on their own or spontaniously

source of energy

chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a _______________

activation energy

the energy that is needed to get a chemical reaction started

catalyst

a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy

lowering, activation energy

catalysts work by _________ a chemical reaction's ________ ______

enzymes

proteins that act as biological catalysts

speed up, cells

enzymes _____ ___ chemical reactions that take place in ____

substrates

the reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

temperature, pH level, regulatory mollecules

3 factors that can effent the activity of enzymes

chemical transformations

mass & energy and chemical reactions are conserved during _________ ________

chemical bonds, formed, broken

energy is released or absorbed whenever ________ _____ are either ______ or _______

matter, energy

______ and ______ are conserved in chemical reactions

source of energy

every living organism needs a __________ to carry out chemical reactions

slow, activation energies, high, catalysts

some chemical reactions that make life possible are too ____ or have ______ ______ that are too ____ to make them practical for living tissue, so are nade possible by a process that cells use involving ______.

proteins, biological catalysts

enzymes are ______ that act as _________ ________

lowering

enzymes work by _____ the activation energies

reactants, bonds break, bonds form

for a chemical reaction to occur, the _______ must collide with enough energy so that the existing ______ ______ and new ______ ______

reactants

enymes provide a site where _______ can be brought together to react

active site

the site on the enzyme where the substrates bind to each other

controlling chemical pathways, making materials that cells need, releasing energy, transferring information

the four essential roles that enzymes play

catalysts

because enzymes are ________ for chemical reactions, they can be effected by any variable that influences a chemical reaction

substrates

reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions

activation energy

the energy that is required to start a chemical reaction

energy absorbing reactions

a chemical reaction where the products have more energy than the reactions

energy releasing reactions

a chemical reaction where the products have less energy than the reactions

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