LING 316 - Chapter 4

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jdonen  on February 13, 2012

Respiration

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LING 316 - Chapter 4

 Boyle's Lawin a closed system, air pressure and volume and inversely proportional
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Boyle's Law in a closed system, air pressure and volume and inversely proportional
Equalization of pressure air always flows from a region of higher pressure to lower pressure, so when the air pressure inside is lower than the atmospheric pressure, the outside air rushes in, and vice versa.
Negative-pressure breathing the action of creating a vacuum to suck air into the lungs.
Tidal breathing regular kind of breathing people do when they are relaxed.
40% inspiration
60% expiration
Tidal breathing volume 0.5L males
0.4L females
Tidal Volume TV; the small amount of air exchanged during tidal breathing
Vital Capacity VC; maximum amount of air a person can exchange through breathing
4-5L males
3-4L females
Inspiratory reserve volume IRV; the maximum volume of air you can inhale after tidal inspiration
IRV amount 3L males
2L females
Expiratory reserve volume ERV; the maximum volume of air you can expel after tidal inspiration
ERV amount just over 1L males
just under 1L females
Components of VC vital capacity; made up of
TV+IRV+ERV
Inspiratory capacity IC; made up of
TV+IRV
Residual volume RV; a volume of air that is never emptied unless the lung collapses
RV amount just over 1L males
just under 1L females
Functional residual capacity FRC; made up of the
RV+ERV
sometimes called relaxation volume because it represents the total volume of the lungs after exhaling and completely relaxing
FRC amount 2-3L males
close to 2L females
Total lung capacity TLC; made up of
TV+IRV+ERV+RV
TLC amount 5-6L males
4-5L females
Speech breathing can use between 25-70% of the VC, depending on how long and how loudly the speaker intends to speak. Inspiration time is short (10%) and expiration time is long (90%) of the duration of a speech respiration cycle because of the continuous need to breathe out slowly during speech production.
Plethysmograph a device used to measure the amount of air volume exchanged during respiration
Components of a plethysmograph airtight container big enough to hold a whole person, an airflow meter used to measure airflow, and a pressure transducer used to measure lung pressure
Uses of plethysmograph used for medical diagnoses of respiratory problems, and also can be paired with EMG measurements to track when muscles are recruited during the respiratory cycle
What a plethysmograph measures a person's vital capacity, rate of respiration and oral pressure during speech
Lungs inside the thorax and are composed of a light airy tissue with pockets of air resulting in a spongy texture
Alveoli the spongy material of the lungs; there are millions of them that make up the lungs; they fill up with air and are surrounded by an intricate network of blood vessels for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Pleura a double layer of waterproof membrane that surrounds each lung
Visceral pleura the inner layer, attached to the lungs
Parietal pleura the outer layer, attached to the inside wall of the thorax
How do the lungs stay inflated? there is a a thin film of fluid between the 2 pleural layers that produce a force of suction between them.
Vertebrae the small bones that make up the spine. There are cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, & coccyx
Cervical and thoracic nerves are important for speech.
Atlas the C1 vertebra; the skull rests on top of here
Axis the C2 vertebra; the atlas rests on top of here
Atlas and axis these are shaped and positioned to allow a range of movement, enabling the head to nod and rotate
Cervical vertebrae there are 7 (C1-C7)
aside from the skull, no other bones attach to these vertebrae.
Thoracic vertebrae there are 12 (T1-T12)
each has two wing-like transverse processes (or sideward protrusions) that stick out to attach the the ribs
Ribs sometimes called costae. Are long flattish bones that connect to each thoracic vertebra and wrap around toward the front of the thorax
True ribs the uppermost 7 ribs
originate from T1-T7
connect to the sternum, with cartilage in between
False ribs beneath the 7 true ribs
there are 5, originating from T8-T12
do not connect directly to the sternum
the top 3 (T8, T9, and T10) connect to cartilages that merge into the cartilage of the 7th rib
Floating ribs the bottom two ribs of the false ribs
do not connect to the sternum at all
T11 and T12
Sternum flat bone around the front of the thorax. There are 3 parts:
manubrium (top)
long thin body (middle)
small xyphoid process (bottom)
Clavicles there are two; also called collarbones. Attach to the sides of the manubrium and extend laterally to the shoulders.
Scapulae or shoulder blades; two broad, flat bones each of which connects to the clavicle and the upper arm
Pump handle motion describes the front-to-back expansion of the lungs. The whole sternum lifts up, lifting the whole ribcage.
Bucket handle motion describes the motion that allows the lungs to expand side-to-side; lungs expand laterally to gain volume
Three key passive forces of breathing torque, elasticity and gravity
Torque the "twist" in the hard parts (bones and cartilage); basically the twisting force in a hard structure. The ribs, for example, will spring back to resting position, and can only twist so far.
Elasticity the resistance of soft tissue (lung tissue and respiratory muscles); resistance to being stretched or pulled.
Torque and elasticity these two forces oppose each other, resulting in rest position of partially inflated lungs
Gravity effects rest volume in whether someone is standing, sitting, or lying down because posture affects the amount of force abdominal contents exert on diaphragm and therefore thoracic volume.
Muscles of inspiration external intercostals (EI)
interchondral internal intercostals (III)
diaphragm
Diaphragma large dome-shaped sheet of muscle below the lungs. Forms a barrier between the thorax above and the abdomen beneath. Originates at the upper lumbar and domes upward. When it contracts, it pulls down, lowering the floor of the thorax, expanding the lung volume. Can only inhale with diaphragm, not exhale.
Diaphragmatic breathing "abdominal/belly breathing"
pulls down on bottom of the lungs, expanding them for inhalation. Squishes abdominal contents, making your belly bulge out.
Innervation of diaphragm phrenic nerve (begins with a merger of cervical nerves C3-C% and runs downward through the thorax)
Reasons to use diaphragmatic breathing (1) ab muscles are strong, which allows for strong and consistent lung contraction
(2) muscles we use to expand and contract ribcage connect to muscles in neck (therefore to larynx and speech articulators); tensing these muscles allows for less flexibility with singing and speaking
Intercostals makes up a two-layered system of muscles running between the ribs, wrapping around the thorax in different directions. Have inspiratory subgroups, and expiratory subgroups. All contribute to bucket handle motion.
External intercostals muscles for inspiration; bucket handle motion; run along outside of ribs, and are more superficial; 11 pairs
Course of EI muscles run high in the back from the vertebrae to the front of the body, running diagonally so they are low in the front. They stop when they reach cartilages at front of ribcage, i.e. do not reach the sternum
Innervation of EI muscles there are 11 pairs and each is innervated by thoracic nerves T1-T11 respectively
Interchondral internal intercostals muscles for inspiration; bucket handle motion; run between cartilaginous parts of ribs 1-8; they run underneath and are attached to the inside of the ribs
Course of III muscles link the ribcage to higher points on the sternum so when they contract they pull the lower cartilages up and away from the centre of the body; stop where the cartilage and bone of each rib meet
Innervation of the III muscles each pair is innervated by thoracic nerves T1-T7 respectively
Accessory muscles: forced inspiration muscles activated only during extreme or forced inspiration (ex. gasping for air, or a very deep breath). Include:
sternocleidomastoid (SCM)
scalene muscles (infrahyoid)
serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior superior four thin muscles along the spine; aid in bucket handle motion during forced inspiration
Origin of serratus posterior superior C7-T2
Insertion of serratus posterior superior ribs 2-5
Innervation of serratus posterior superior by nerves T2-T5
Sternocleidomastoid SCM; "head turn" muscle; raises the sternum for pump handle motion in forced inspiration
Origin of SCM in two places: manubrium of the sternum and middle of the clavicle
Insertion of SCM mastoid process
Innervation of SCM spinal part of the Accessory Nerve (CN XI)
Infrahyoid muscles "strap muscles"; thin strap-like muscles that attach to the larynx and tongue root above; can also be used to raise the sternum for forced inspiration
Expiratory muscles act like someone pushing handles closer together reducing air volume, increasing pressure, causing air to rush in.
Include:
interosseous internal intercostals (II)
abdominal muscles
Internal intercostals deeper than EI muscles; as a system it creates a strong sheet linking the ribcage to lower parts of the spine; when they contract it pulls the ribs down and back in a bucket handle motion
Course of II muscles run back and downward
origin: inner edge of each lower rib
insertion: inner edge of next upper rib obliquely
run between bony parts of the ribs
Innervation of the II muscles each one innervated by corresponding nerve, T1-T11
Rectus abdominis RA; outermost anterior ab muscle
extends from top of hipbone/groin to lower costal cartilages that connect ribs 5-7 to sternum
Contraction of RA muscles pulls ribs down and inward in pump handle motion
Innervation of RA muscles thoracic nerves T6 (or T7) to T12
External obliques EO; covered by RA muscles
make up most of the outer ab layer on the sides
Course of EO muscles connects from just under sides of RA in front running around to the back in an upward angle
Contraction of EO muscles contract to squeeze in ab cavity, pushing diaphragm up against bottom of lungs
Innervation of EO muscles innervated by T7-T12
Internal obliques IO; are the middle layer of muscle on the side abdomen
Course of IO muscles run perpendicular to EO from the back in a triangular shape to the top of the pelvic bone and halfway up the chest along the midline
Contraction of IO muscles contract to squeeze guts into abdominal cavity (same as EO muscles)
Innervation of IO muscles by T7-T12 and L1 (first lumbar vertebra)
Transverse abdominis the deepest of the ab muscles
wraps horizontally around the front of the body
Course of TA muscles origin: in a line along the crest of the pelvis and the lower edges of the ribcage
insertion: linea alba (a white line of connective tissue that runs up and down along frontal midline of stomach)
Contraction of TA muscles contracts to squeeze guts in (like EO, and IO)
Innevation of TA muscles T6 (or T7) to T12 and L1
Accessory muscles of expiration: deep AMS recruited to force out last bits of air. Include: latissimus dorsi and serratus posterior inferior
Serratus posterior inferior irregular quadrilateral muscles that originate T11-L3 and insert into ribs 9-12
contract to pull ribs down and backwards in a bucket handle motion (to force out last bits of air)
innervated by T9-T12
Inspiration during speech breathing EI, III, diaphragm and levtor costalis muscles are recruited to take in more air in a shorter time during inspiration
faster and less controlled
Expiration during speech breathing EI, III, diaphragm and levator costalis muscles stay active at lesser constriction strengths to slow contraction of lungs and allow for air to escape in a slower, more controlled manner
Subglottal air pressure air pressure below the glottis
II muscles in speech breathing these muscles are recruited to continue expiration at the time just after no muscles (inspiratory nor expiratory) are active, the point in time when air pressure is balanced
Pneumotachograph or a speech airflow meter, is a tool that can be used to measure airflow during speech; used to study oral and nasal airflow
Components of a pneumotachograph airtight mask that covers the mouth and/or nose attached to sensors that detect airflow.
Function of a pneumotachograph the mask works by measuring the pressure drop of airflow across a fine wire screen. The resistance of the wire screen can be determined by calibrating the mask. Changes in airflow are recorded as voltage changes.
Advantages of a pneumotachograph high temporal resolution, affordable, not medically invasive
Disadvantages of a pneumotachograph time-consuming: voltage transducers need to be calibrated individually, having mask over face may be unpleasant, interfere with audio recordings distorting amplitudes about 1000Hz
Doubling of air pressure in the lungs leads to... a fourfold increase in sound pressure (which people experience as loudness)

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