-1600's Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
o Made lenses to see fabric from there he did the 1st practical microscope
o He saw the first micro started to see protozoa and bacteria
o Microorganisms called them "animalcules"
- Robert Hooke
o British scientist
o Built 1st compound microscope (multiple lenses)
o Named this small thing things "Cells"
- 1668 Francesco Redi
o Opponent of spontaneous Generation he know about microorganisms.
o Did an experiment wrapped and not wrapped meat. The meat that was not wrapped there was fly eggs on meat.
o Results were not believed
- 1800s Schieiden Schwan and Virchow
o Challened CALLENED THE CASE FOR SPONTANEOUS GENERATION WITH biogenesis- the claim that living cells arise from preexisting living cells (cell theory)
- 1861 Louis Pasteur
o Did an experiment that is proved theory of Spontaneous generation. Flask on that is straight and the other one that is on a curve that bacteria cannot enter. (boiling kills bacteria).
Louis Pasteur was the one that discovered it. Which is biological
It is a process where yeast converts sugar to alcohol in the absence of air. In the presence of air, a bacterium changes the alcohol into vinegar. Pasteur's solution was to apply enough heat to kill most of the bacteria that caused the spoilage, also known as
Sugar Ethanol Vinegar
No O2 Air Acetic Acid
Heat (Pasteurization) kills bacteria
- Joseph Lister
surgeon. Treated wounds w/Carbolic acid by disinfectant/Antiseptic.
o After this the Infection went down as well as deaths
- Ignaz Semmelweiz
o A Physician in a teaching hospital that noticed Puerperal Fever (Child Birth Fever). More common during season that the students were at the hospital. How students were tracking microbes from cadaver dissections and infecting the pregnant women. More in the winter unlike in the summer when students where on break.
o Solution when they came back is to Wash Hands
- Robert Koch
o Micros caused disease got awarded by Anthrax it is by cattle
The bug is Bucillus Anthracis
o He established a sequence of experimental steps for for relating a microbe to a certain disease.
1. Isolate microbe from diseased animal
2. Isolate/characterize (culture) in the bacteria in a "Petrie dish"
3. Inoculate (inject) healthy animal w/microb
4. Re-isolate from the same mico and compare
Germ theory was proven
- 1790 Edward Jenner
o British MD
o Isolated and created a vaccine for small pox
o Using milk maid how they did not get small pox but they had cow pox (mild disease)
- 1920's Alexander Flemming
o Contamination of a plate is big problem
o Fungi in a dish "penicillim" was called Penicillin
o On the Pertrie dish was fuzzy bacteria coved plat but would not grow near the fuzzy. It was clear the bacteria stoped growing
o Did not published anything
- Ernest Chain and Howard Florey
o Produced Penicillin and industrialized
o It was a big deal in the beginning of World War II
MICROBES are cal microorganisms
Bacteria single cell organelle it is a prokaryotic
Protista involves horrifying diseases from worms Eukaryotes
*Viruses not alive but it is a problem.
Why study Micro???
• Know the enemy so it can be destroyed. Because if not know how to defet it not a chance to fight it off.
- Disease/ Medical
- Food industry that utilize micros are (vinegar, sauerkraut, pickles, alcohol beverages, green olives, soy sauce, buttermilk, cheese, yogurt and bread)
o Also to keep them safe pressured
o Organic chemical
Doing several different thing like jeans, alcohol, acid tone and esc.
o Biotechnology it makes protein and variety of drugs.
basic biology it is hugely important how there is a huge amount of bacteria and fungi then all animals it out number us.
o Carbon cycle
o Nitrogen Cycle
o Also responsible in Sapphytes or decomposers they are decay organisms for them to rot.
the first observation of bacteria were made by
Working with the french wine industry, Louis Pasteur developed a process that ____.
removeds spoilage microorganisms from wine
In the scientific name, Escherichia coli, Escherichia is the