BIO 1421-Test #!

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Which virus attacks white blood cells?

HIV

Prokaryotes are helpful to humans because they...

-help plants utilize atmospheric nitrogen.
-can clean up toxic waste
-are used to make various foods.
-sythesize vitamins within our intestinal tracts.

The concept of evolution is based upon

survival and reproductive success of organisms with favorable variations

Measles is caused by

viruses

Tetanus is caused by ______ bacteria that are growing in deep puncture wounds

anaerobic

Which is the first explanation of a problem in thinking of scientist?

hypothesis

The oldest fossil organisms presently know have been dated at approximately how many years old?

3.5 billion

Bacteria cause which diseases?

-gonorrhea
-strep throat
-pneumonia
-syphilis

A virus basically consists of

RNA or DNA and a protein coat

Evolution is described as change from pre-existing life forms to modern-day organisms. What actually changed?

ability of organisms to cope with external stimuli

Theory

A carefully formulated scientific explanation that is based on a large accumulation of observations and is in accord with scientific principles

smallest sized organisms

bacteria

Prokaryotic cell walls function

to prevent the cell from bursting in a hypotonic (watery) environment

What may cause the disease known as lockjaw?

Clostridium tetani

The earliest (oldest) fossils resemble modern

prokaryotes

what is a normal inhabitant of a cow's digestive tract that can cause harm to people when it contaminates ground beef

Escherichia coli

binary fission

the method by which bacteria reproduce

The main difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph is

how they obtain energy

Antibiotics can only be effective against a

bacterium

Prions

improperly folded proteins

When a virus takes over the machinery of a cell, it forces the cell to manufacture

more viral particles

Unlike aerobic prokaryotes, anaerobic prokaryotes can obtain energy when _____ is not available.

oxygen

capsule

The slime layer around the bacterial cell

staphylococcus

A bacterial colony that forms a grape-like cluster of round cells

Endospores are produced by

bacilli (ROD)

Strep throat is caused by Streptococcus, at type of

bacteria

science is based on

evidence

Intestinal gas is evidence of active _____ in one's digestive tract.

methanogens

bacteriophages

Viruses that attack prokaryotes

which environments would you normally find prokaryotes?

-human skin
-a spoonfull of soil
-an animal's intestinal tact
-a single drop of saltwater

What do the sticky layers of protective slime produced by some bacteria enable them to do?

stick together and form biofilms

Nearly all viral multiplication cycles require _____ steps.

five

Which represents the highest degree of certainty?

theory

Botulism can cause

paralysis, distruped breathing, and death.

It appears that the pathogen responsible for "mad cow disease" also in human causes

vCruetzfeldt-Jakob disease

Lyme disease is cause by _____ that are transmitted to humans by ticks.

spirillia

When nutrients are scarce or stress occurs some bacteria

form endospores

When a disease spreads fast across countries at the same time this is called a _______?

pandemic

In a word, evolution means _____.

change

Herpes is caused by

viruses

For which of the following diseases or conditions should antibiotics be used?

lyme disease

Endospores as old as _____ years old have been revived into living bacteria.

250,000,000

Most scientists do not consider viruses to be "alive" because

their metabolic machinery is borrowed from the host cell.

When bacteria divide by fission each daughter cell inherits

one chromosome

The rhyme or verse "Ring around the rosey..." is related to what epdidemic?

bubonic plague

Pathogens

any infectious agent that can invade a host organism and multiply on or in it.

Multicellularity allows organisms to

be big

Which is a swamp gas, intestinal gas, and explosive gas in a coal mine (killed miners recently)?

methane

In ancient Rome which of the following words meant " poisonous ", "venemous" or "virulant?"

virus

Flagella in bacteria

are specialized for movement through rotory spin.

Diverse viruses infect organisms of

all kingdoms

Mad cow disease, also called variant Creutzfelt-Jakob disease, is caused by

prion

Which of the following is characteristic of HIV?

RNA enclosed in a protein coat

Bacteriophages are

viruses

Contagious diseases are spread by

-indirect contact
-inhalation
-vectors
-direct contact

The smallest organizational unit having a capacity to survive and reproduce on its own its

a cell

Extreme halophiles

require high salt concentrations

When not dividing, bacteria have ____ chromosome(s) and may have extra circles of_____ called plasmids.

one;DNA

Pairs of rod-shaped bacteria are called

diplobacilli

Viroids differ from viruses in that the former lack

protein

tightly folded strands or circles of RNA and poses no protein coat. These bits of "naked" RNA cause many diseases in plants.

viroids

viruses include some forms that are able to attack bacteria.

true

The validity of scientific discoveries cannot be based on

-morality
-economics
-philosophy
-aesthetics

Which of the following allow the bacteria to join together to transfer genes?

pili

In bacteria, DNA is found

as a circular thread

A virus cannot replicate without pirating ______ from a specific host cell.

metabolic machinery

Rod shaped bacteria are called

bacilli

smallpox

is not caused by bacteria

fungi

can serve as a source of antibiotics

The oldest living forms of life on Earth are the

archae

Infective proteins are known as

prions

Viruses have a _____ and a ____.

DNA or RNA; protein coat

Which of the following options correctly pairs a structure with its function in prokaryote cells?

pili=help prokaryotes stick to each other and to surfaces

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