Chap 18 Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System

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What are the components of the cirulatory system?

-Heart
-Blood vessels

What lies in the mediastinum, behind the body of the sternum between the points of attachment of ribs 2-6?

Heart

Approximately two thirds of the heart's mass lies to which side of the midline?

Left

Posteriorly the heart rests on what?

Bodies of the thoracic vertebrae 5-8

Where does the Apex of the heart lie?

On the Diaphragm pointing to the left

Where does the base of the heart lie?

Just below the second rib

What are clinically important as an aid in diagnosing heart disorders?

Boundries of the heart

What are the boundries of the heart influenced by?

-Age
-Body build
-State of contraction

What is the shape of the heart at birth?

Transvers and appears lage in proportion to the diameter of the chest cavity

What age does the heart attain it's adult shape and weight?

25

What are the two kinds of Pericardium?

-Fibrous pericardium
-Serous pericardium

What is the tough, loose-fitting inextensible sac?

Fibrous pericardium

What is the parietal layer that lies inside the fibrous pericardium?

Serous Pericardium

What layer of tissue adhears to the outside of the heart?

Viceral layer

What seperates the two layers of Serous pericardium?

pericardial space with pericardial fluid

What is the function of the heart coverings?

Provide protection against friction

How many layers make up the wall of the heart?

3 distinct layers

What are the 3 distinct layers that comprise the heart wall (superficial to deep)?

-Epicardium
-Myocardium
-Endocardium

What is the outer layer of the heart wall?

Epicardium

What is the thick, contractile middle layer of the heart wall; that compresses the heart cavities and blood within them with great force?

Myocardium

What is the delicate inner layer of endothelial tissue?

Endocardium

The chambers of the heart are divided into how many cavities?

4

What are the 2 superior chambers of the heart?

Atria

What are the Atria also known as?

"receiving chambers" (they recieve blood from the veins)

What are the characteristics of the Myocardium within the atria?

-Not very thick because little pressure is needed to move blood such a small distance

What is the earlike flap protruding from each atrium?

Auricle

What are the 2 lower chambers of the heart?

Ventricles

What are the Ventricles also known as?

"pumping chambers" (because they push blood into the large network of vessels)

What is the characteristics of the Myocardium within the ventricles?

-Thicker than the atria because great force must be generated to pump the blood a large distance

Which ventricle's myocardium is thicker and why?

Left ventricle is thicker than the right because it must push blood much further

What are the mechanical devices that permit the flow of blood in one direction only?

Valves of the heart

What prevents blood from flowing back into the atria from the ventricles when the ventricles contract?

Atrioventriclular (AV) valves

What is the name of the right AV valve?

Tricuspid valve

What guards the right atrioventricular orifice?

Tricuspid valve

What are the free edges of the three flaps of endocardium that make up the tricuspid valve attached to papillary muscles by?

Chordae tendineae

What is the name of the left AV valve?

Bicuspid valve or Mitral valve

What guards the left atrioventricular orifice?

Bicuspid valve

What is similar in structure to the tricuspid valve except only having two flaps present?

Bicuspid valve

What are the half-moon shaped flaps growing out from the lining of the pulmonary artery and aorta; preventing blood from flowing back into the ventricles from the aorta and pulmonary artery?

Semilunar (SL) valves

What is the valve at the entrance of the pulmonary artery?

Pulmonary semilunar valve

What valve is at the enterance of the aorta?

Aortic semilunar valve

What is a set of connected rings that serve as a semirigid support for the heart valves and for the attachement of cardiac muscle of the myocardium?

Skeleton of the heart

What serves as an electrical barrier between the myocardium of the atria and myocardium of the ventricles?

Skeleton of the heart

What is characterized by listening to the sounds of the heart on the body surface with a stethoscope?

Surface projection

What is the flow of blood in the right side of heart from begining until it enters the Left side of the heart?

-Right Atrium through R Atriventricular valve into the R Ventricle
-From R Ventricle through Pulmonary Semilunar valve into the Pulmonary artery, the Pulmonary trunk
-Pulmonary trunk branches to form L and R Pulmonary arteries which conduct gas exhange with lungs
-From lungs blood flows through Pulmonary Veins into L Atrium

What is the flow of blood in the left side of the heart from blood from pulmonary veins flowing from lungs into the left Atrium?

-Blood from pulmonary veins flows into Left Atrium which passes through the L AV valve into the L Ventricle
-From L Ventricle blood flows through Aortic Semilunar valve into the Aorta
-Branches of the aorta supply all the tissues of the body except the gas exchanging tissues of the lungs

Where does blood leaving the head and neck and chest walls tissues empty?

Into the superior vena cava

Where does blood leaving the lower body empty into?

Into the inferior vena cava

Where does the blood of both the Superior and Inferior vena cava flow?

Into the Right Atrium

Ventricles recieve blood from branches of what?

Both right and left Coronary arteries

The first branches of the Coronary artery come off what?

Aorta

The most abundant blood supply goes into the myocardium of what ventricle?

Left ventricle

What coronary artery is dominant in approximately 50% of all hearts?

Right coronary artery

What coronary artery is dominant in approximately 20% of all hearts?

Left coronary artery

What percent of all hearts are neither of the coronary arteries dominant?

30%

Few anastomoses (connections between vessels) exist between the larger branches of what?

Coronary Arteries

As a rule veins of the coronary circulation follow a course that closely parallels that of what?

Coronary arteries

Several veins of coronary cirulation drain directly into what?

Right Atrium

After blood goes through the cardiac veins where does it enter?

Coronary sinus to drain into right atrium

What makes up the Conduction system of the heart?

-Sinoatrial (SA) node
-Atrioventricular (AV) node
-AV bundle
-Purkinje Fibers

What is the "pacemaker" of the heart?

Sinoatrial (SA) node

What consists of hundreds of cells in the right atrial wall near the opening of the superior vena cava?

Sinoatrial (SA) node

What is the small mass of special cardiac muscle in right atrium along lower part of interatrial septum?

Atrioventricular (AV) node

What is a bundle of special cardiac muscles fibers that originate in the AV node extends by two branches down the two sides of the interventricular septum, and continues as purkinje fibers?

AV bundle

What extend out to papillary muscles and lateral walls of ventricles

Purkinje fibers

What is located near the arch of the aorta is made up of the combination of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers?

Cardiac Plexuses

Fibers from the Cardiac Plexus enter the heart by accompanying what?

Right and left Coronary arteries entering the heart

Most fibers from the cardiac plexus end where?

SA node but some end in the AV node in the atrial myocardium

What are the accelerator nerves?

Sympathetic nerves

What are the inhibitory or depressor nerves?

Vagus fibers

What carry blood away from heart?

Arteries (except pulmonary arter which carry oxygenated blood)

What are the largest arteries in the body?

Elastic arteries

What accommodate the surge of blood when the heart contracts and is able to recoil when ventricles relax?

Elastic arteries

What are examples of Elastic arteries?

Aorta and it's major branches

What are your distributing arteries?

Muscular arteries

What are the characteristics of Muscular (distributing) arteries?

-Smaller in diameter than elastic arteries
-Muscular layer is thick

What are examples of Muscular arteries?

-Brachial
-Gastric
-Superior Mesenteric

What are considered your resistance vessels?

Arterioles

What are the smallest arteries?

Arterioles

What are important in regulating blood flow to end organs?

Arterioles

What are short connecting vessels between true arteriole and 20-100 capillaries that are encircled by precapillary sphincters?

Metarterioles

What are the primary exchange vessels?

Capillaries

What are microscopic vessels that carry blood from arterioles to venules?

Capillaries

What constitutes Microcirculation?

-Arterioles
-Capillaries
-Venules

What type of blood vessel is not evenly distributed which contains the highest numbers in tissues with high metabolic rate and may be absent in some "avasular" tissues such as cartilage?

Capillaries

What makes up a capillary?

-Basement membrane
-Epithelial cells

What are the structural layers of blood vessels?

-Tunic adventitia
-Tunica media
-Tunic intima

Where is Tunic adventita found?

Found in arteries and veins

Where is Tunica media found?

Arteries and veins

Where is Tunic intima found?

found in all blood vessels, only layer present in capillaries

What is the only layer of blood vessels found in capillaries?

Tunic intima

What provide a smooth luminal surface that protects against intravascular coagulation?

Lining endothelial cells

What is the only lining found in capillary?

Lining endothelial cells

What contains intercellular clefts, cytoplasmic pores, and fenestrations that allow exchange to occur between blood and tissue fluid?

Lining endothelial cells

What exhibit a woven appearance and function to strengthen and keep the lumen of a vessel open?

Collagen fibers

What form highly elastic networks and play important roles in creating passive tension to help regulate blood pressure throughout the cardiac cycle?

Elastic fibers

What is present in all segments of vascular system except capillaries that exert active tension in vessels when contracting?

Smooth muscle fibers

What are the arteries that eventually diverge into capillaries?

End arteries

What are arteries that open inot other branches of the same or other arteries?

Arterial anastomosis

What occurs when blood flows from an artery directly into a vein?

Arteriovenous anastomoses or shunts

Large veins of the cranial cavity are called what?

Dural Sinuses

Venous blood from the head, neck, upper extremities, and thoracic cavity (except lungs) drains into what?

Superior Vena Cava

Venous blood from thoracic organs drains directly into what?

Superior Vena Cava or Azygos Vein

Veins are the ultimate extensions of what?

Capillaries

Venous blood from lower extremities and abdomen drains into what?

Inferior Vena Cava

What connects two capillary beds in the hepatic portal system?

Hepatic Portal Vein

Veins from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder, and intestines send their blood to the what?

Liver via the Hepatic Portal Vein

In the liver, venous blood mingles with arterial blood in the capillaries and is eventually drained from liver by what to where?

By Hepatic Veins that join the Inferior Vena Cava

What is the system when two capillary beds are connected together?

Hepatic Portal System

What are the extensions of internal iliac arteries; which carry fetal blood to placenta?

Two umbilical arteries

What is attached to uterine wall, and is where exchange of oxygen and other substances between the separated maternal and fetal blood occurs?

Placenta

What returns oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus; enters body through umbilicus and goes to undersurface of liver, where it gives off two or three branches and then continues as ductus venosus?

Umbilical vein

What is the continuation of umbilical vein, which bypasses the undeveloped liver and drains into inferior vena cava?

Ductus venosus

What is the opening in septum between right and left atria of a fetus?

Foramen ovale

What is the small vessel connecting pulmonary artery with descending thoracic aorta of a fetus?

Ductus arteriosus

The umbilical vein within the baby's body becomes what after the umbilical cord is cut?

The round ligament of the liver

What functionally closes shortly after a newborn's first breath and pulmonary circulation is established; structural closure takes approximately 9 months

Foramen ovale

What contracts with establishment of respiration, and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum?

Ductus arteriosus

The Ductus venosus becomes what after the umbilical cord is cut?

The ligamentum venosum of the liver

What is the blockage or weakening of critical arteries?

Atherosclerosis

Throughout adulthood heart valves and myocardial tissue degenerate which do what?

Reduces pumping efficiency

What type of vessels are Arteries considered as?

Resistant Vessels

What type of vessels are Vein's considered as?

Compacitant Vessels

What are the main resistant vessels?

Arteriole

What is the primary exchange vessel?

Capillary

What vessels arise off the Aortic Arch?

-Brachiocephalic Artery
-Left Common Carotid Artery
-Left Subclavian Artery

What vessels arise off the Brachiocephalic Artery?

-Right Subclavian Artery
-Right Common Carotid Artery

What is the sequence of the Common Iliac artery proximal to distal?

Common illiac arter turns int the External Iliac Artery which turns into the Femoral artery

What vessels supplies the anterior portion of the head?

Right/Left Common Carotid Arteries to Right/Left Internal Carotid Arteries to Anterior Cerebral Arteries

What vessels supply the posterior portion of the head?

Right/Left Subclavian Arteries to Right/Left Vertebral Arteries to Basilar Artery to Posterior Cerebral Arteries

What connects the anterior and posterior vessels that supply the head?

Posterior communicating artery

What connects the right and left sides of the anterior vessels that supply the head?

Anterior communicating artery

What does the connection of the Anterior/Posterior communicating arteries form when they connect?

Circle of Willis

What is the Circle of willis a good example of?

Arterial anastomosis

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