movements that grow from the bottom up- they start with common people and can grow to have minor political influence. The Tea Party is one such example
when the various activities of a particular organization become localized in one location
the obligations or responsibilities of a citizen (voting)
A belief that you are a member of an economic group whose interests are opposed to people in other such groups.
idea that only a small amount of information is used by people to make decisions
someone who believes in the right end of the spectrum: less government in business, more government for social issues
the values that a group holds as the foundation of their organization
a war between conflicting ideas and beliefs of society's moral codes.
statistical characteristics of a population, such as age, race, education level, socioeconomic status, etc
group that is on the highest tier socially or economically
ideology where the upper tier of the society or economy should rule the lower classes
poll that asks people who they voted for in the election- these are often ridiculed for being inaccurate
a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards an object or person
when a political party breaks up into different sectors because of different political ideals- ex, Democratic Party in 1850s
Framing an issue
when taking polls, it depends on how the pollster asks his questions, because it could affect the results
in America, women tend to vote more democratically and men will vote more conservatively
a movement driven by the politics of a community
any structure or mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human community
John Q. Public
name given for the "common man"
a political ideology in which there is a big government hand in business, but little government in social issues
a political ideology where there is little overall government
political ideology where they believe the majority should rule
Margin of error/ Measurement errors/Sampling errors
in every poll, there is a margin of error (a good poll will have about a ± margin of error)
In a few years, all of the minority groups combined will become the majority in the United States
person who was previously liberal, but did not like all of the welfare programs and believed that the government should take stronger military action, so they moved to conservatism (still like big government in business)
still liberal, but are willing to work with big business- they also want to tax the high income individuals
individual whose opinion is representative of the majority's
a committed member of a political party, who can be aggressive about their beliefs
the political party with which a person identifies
where multiple ideals must compete in a political system
America is becoming more and more shifted towards the far left or right, leaving few independents or moderates
orientations of American citizens towards following politics
Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about the political, economic, social and cultural affairs held by the majority of people within as society
the study of the process by which children obtain political values (family, school, media)
political party that advocates reform through government intervention
Public opinion is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population
ability of politicians to persuade the public to their point of view
when polling, it is necessary to take a sample of people from all parts of society
a large part of the country who does not express their opinions publically (the normal ones)
a vote for a candidate with nonbinding results- used to see where the candidates are in the public opinion
a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of natural law and transcendent moral order, tradition, hierarchy and organic unity, agrarianism, classicism and high culture, and the intersecting spheres of loyalty
a social or political issue that can drive a wedge in a political party- can lead to fragmentation
Commander in chief
Another name given to the president. This means that the president is the commander of the armed forces of the US
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
Executive Office of the President
The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units.
a president's strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors
the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
The political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors"
The power possessed only by a few state governors to veto only certain parts of a bill while allowing it to pass into law (this cannot be done on the federal level)
president is seen as emperor taking strong actions without consulting Congress or seeking its approval (Nixon, LBJ)
When the presidency is weakened due to laws passed by Congress (Ford, Carter, ex War Powers Act)
When a president is seen as a savior to the US (FDR)
a system of government in which there are separate branches whose goals and powers are independent. There is usually a system of checks and balances in which each branch has a certain power over the other
when the same party controls the White House and both houses of Congress
the constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. a 2/3 vote in each house can override a veto
War Powers Act
A law passed in 1973, in reaction to American fighting in Vietname, that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension. however, presidents viewed the resolution as unconstitutional
White House Office
the personal staff of the President, incl the chief of staff, policy offices and political offices; incl. National Security Council
A written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law. Usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional.
an informal treaty issued by the president to another country, but it does not have to be approved by the senate (however, must follow US laws and the constitution)
has the same force as a law, but can be rescinded by current/future presidents. must still follow US constitution.
When the president claims that communications between him and the top advisers are confidential. Nixon tried to use this as an excuse during the Watergate Scandal, but it didn't work
National Security Council
the committee that links the president's foreign and military policy advisers. Its formal members are the president, the VP, secretary of state and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant
Office of Management and Budget
an office that prepares the president's budget and also advises presidents on proposals from departments and agencies and helps review their proposed regulations
If, after 10 days, the president does not vote on a bill and congress has adjourned, the bill dies and must be reintroduced during the new session
State of the Union address
one of the roles of the president laid out in the constitution. It is a yearly report by the president to Congress describing the nation's condition and recommending programs and policies
"Take care" clause
The constitutional requirement (in Article II, Section 3) that presidents take care that the laws are faithfully executed, even if they disagree with the purpose of those laws.
activities of members of congress that help constituents as individuals, particularly by cutting through bureaucratic red tape to get people aht they think they have a right to get
the process of reallocating seats in the House every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
The principal partisan ally of the Speak of the House, or the party's manager in the Senate. He is responsible for scheduling bills, influencing committee assignments, and rounding up votes in behalf of the party's legislative positions
The principal leader of the minority party in the House of Representatives or in the Senate
President pro tempore
Officer of the Senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president
The minimum number of members who must be present to permit a legislative body to take official action. The Quorum in the House is 218 while in the Senate it is 51.
A legislative practice that assigns the chair of a committee or subcommittee to the member of the majority party with the longest continuous service on the committee.
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the constitution. He is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed the president.
House Rules Committee
the committee in the house of representatives that reviews most bills coming from a house committee before they go to the full House
a strategy only used in the Senate, where opponents of a piece of legislation use their right to unlimited debate to prevent the Senate from ever voting on a bill. this can be stopped (but rarely is) by a vote of 60 or more member of congress
party leaders who work with the majority leader and minority leader to count votes beforehand and lean on waverers whose votes are crucial to a bill favored by the party
the most important influences of the congressional agenda. they play dominant roles in scheduling hearings, hiring staff, appointing subcommittees, and managing committee bills when they are brought before the full house.
a group of members of congressional sharing some interest or characteristic. Many are composed of members of parties of both houses.
A vote taken by the Senate in order to end a Filibuster. There must be at least 60 votes in order to pass.
Ad Hoc Committee
a congressional committee appointed for a limited time to design and report a specific piece of legislation
Congressional committees formed when the Senate and House pass a particular bill in different forms. party leadership appoints members from each house to iron out the differences and bring back a single bill, which both houses will then vote on
Congressional committees on a few subject-matter areas with membership drawn from both houses. A conference committee is the most common type of a joint committee
Congressional committees appointed for a limited time and a specific purpose, such as the Watergate investigation
A congressional committee created for a specific purpose, sometimes to conduct an investigation. Basically same thing as a Select Committee
Separate subject-matter committees in each house of Congress that handle bills in different policy areas. These Committees are permanent
a procedure enabling members to force a bill that has been pigeonholed in committee onto the floor for consideration
Policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay a certain level of benefits to a certain number of recipients. EX. Social Security
Necessary and Proper Clause
Also called the Elastic Clause- authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
A type of veto occurring when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president and the president simply lets the bill die by neither signing nor vetoing it
Pork Barrel Legislation
legislation that contains Federal projects, grants, and contracts available to state and local governments, businesses, colleges and other institutions in a congressional district
These occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president.
An electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees
when legislation is divided into sections, with each part sent to the most relevant committee
unpopular provision added to an important bill certain to pass so that it will "ride" through the legislative process
A vote in Congress that records how the congressman voted (yes, no, or abstain)
A Rule decided by the Rules Committee in the House in order to limit debate about a bill. This rule means that no amendments (or amendments only from certain members) can be added
A Rule decided by the Rules Committee in the House in order to limit debate about a bill. This rule means that amendments from any member is allowed
A Rule decided by the Rules Committee in the House in order to limit debate about a bill. This rule means that some amendments are allowed while others are not (based on topics)
Voting with one party for one office and another party for other offices. IT has become the norm in American voting behavior
Unanimous consent agreement
a unanimous agreement that sets forth the terms and conditions according to which the Senate will consider a measure (not a bill); these agreements are individually negotiated
A vote in Congress that is not recorded. These are popular for the congressmen who do not want their constituents or fellow politicians to know how they voted on a bill or measure.
when a committee sets aside a bill and lets it die.
an expression of opinion either in the House or Senate to settle procedural matters in either body
a resolution that covers matters requiring the action of the House and Senate but on which a law is not needed
a bill that deals with an issue of general interest and that applies to the entire nation
A legislative bill that deals only with specific, private, personal, or local matters.
1950s-1960s- when Committee chairmen (who were usually Southern Democrats) had to agree before anything could pass
1970s- younger Democrats who wanted change and didn't like waiting for committee chairmen. They brought about reforms
Benefits of an incumbent
Name recognition, known track record, it is easier for them to raise money, franking privilege
The constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. a 2/3 vote in each house can override a veto
1st step after introduction of a bill. performs studies, holds hearings and makes revisions to a bill. If approved, the bill wiill go to the full committee
2nd step after introduction of a bill. It may amend or rewrite the bill, before deciding whether to send it to the Senate/House floor or to kill it. If approved, the bill is reported to the full House/Senate. In the House, it is placed on the calender and the Rules Committee establishes rules to limit debate. If in the Senate, the majority and minority leaders consult with all members of the Senate
3rd step after introduction of a bill. the Bill is debated by a full house or Senate, amendments are offered and a vote is taken. if the bill passes in a different version in each house, then it is sent to a conference committee. If the bill is the same and passes in both houses, it goes to the president.
Stuart v. Laird (1803)
supreme court ruling that congress can rearrange the Judicial Branch
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
established judicial review, original jurisdiction, and appellate jurisdiction
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816)
court case ruling that the supreme court can review the decisions of the highest state courts if they involve a federal law or the federal Constitution
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
an 1819 supreme court ruling that established the supremacy of the national goveremnt over state governments. The Court held that congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers in the constitution
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
ruling in 1857 that slaves were not and could never be citizens and that the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional (regarded as one of the worst decisions made by the supreme court)
the branch of law dealing with disputes between individuals or organizations for compensation
involves prosecution by the government of a person for an act that has been classified as a crime
lawsuits in which a small number of people sue on hebalf of all people in similar circumstances (many cases involving the NAACP are examples)
U.S. District Court
the federal courts of original jurisdiction. They are the only federal courts in which trials are held and in which juries may be impaneled. This is the entry point for most litigation in the federal court system.
U.S. Court of Appeals
appellate courts empowered to review all final decisions of district courts, except in rare cases. They also hear appeals to orders of many federal regulatory agencies
U.S. Supreme Court
the Court ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. It has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction
considered to be the chief lawyer of the US government.
A presidential appointee and the third-ranking office in the Department of Justice. Is in charge of the appellate court litigation of the federal government.
an attorney nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate, and serves at the discretion of the president
the jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. These are the courts that determine the facts about the case
the jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. They do not review the factual record, on the legal issues involved
a written argument, a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case
Amicus Curiae ("amici brief")
legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of influencing a court's decision by raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties.
In a US Suprme Court Case, each side can have 30 min to discuss their argument
a statement of legal reasoning behind a judicial decision
The opinion from a group of justices, often in an appellate court, in which no single opinion received the support of a majority of the court. It did not receive the support of half the justices, but received more support than any other opinion.
an opinion written not only to support a majority decision but to also stress a different constitutional or legal basis for the judgement
an opinion written by justices who are opposed to all or part of the majority's decision
an unwritten tradition where nominations for state-level federal judicial posts are usually not confirmed if they are opposed by a senator of the president's party from the state in which the nominee will serve. The tradition also applies to courts of appeal when there is opposition from a senator of the president's party who is from the nominee's state. In general, it gives senators more power to choose district court judges
a test used to determine a candidate for the US Supreme Court's deference to the legislative branch
the power of the courts to determine whether acts of congress and, by implication, the executive are in accord witht the US constitution (established in Marbury v Madison)
Hold on appointment
United States Senators can place a "hold" on nominations of the President of the United States which are being considered for confirmation as required by the United States Constitution.
a judicial philosophy in which judges make bold policy decisions, even charting new constitutional ground. Advocates of this approach emphasize that the courts can correct pressing needs, especially those unmet by the majoritarian political process.
how and whether court decisions are to be translated into actual policy, thereby affecting the behavior of others. The courts rely on other units of government to enforce their decisions.
The practice of prescribing in a decision a set of rules that are to guide future decisions on similar cases. Used by the Supreme Court to guide the lower courts in making decisions.
Latin for "let the decision stand," meaning that an earlier decision should hold for the case being considered. Most Cases reaching appellate courts are settled on this principle.
how similar cases have been decided in the past.
the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case
the court must establish the legal scope of their powers and authority
an opinion issued by a court that does not have the effect of adjudicating a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law
a doctrine developed by the federal courts and used as a means to avoid deciding some cases, principally those involving conflicts between the president and congress.
a United States federal court has jurisdiction to hear a civil casebecause the plaintiff has alleged a violation of the Constitution or law of the United States, or treatiesto which the United States is a party.
United States Supreme Court's test for determining whether speech or expression can be labeled obscene, in which case it is not protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be prohibited.
Principle of law that governs how the lower courts do their work.
refers to the observed disparity on a number of educational measures between the performance of groups of students, especially groups defined by gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.
a policy designed to give special attention to or conensatory treatment for members of some previously disadvantaged gropu
laws put in place in the United States after the Civil War with the effect of limiting the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks. Like Jim Crow Laws, but used to control labor and migration, not just segregation and voting.
the legal constitutional protections against government. Although our civil liberties are formally set down in the Bill of Rights, the courts, police, and legislatures define their meaning
policies designed to protect people against aribrary or discriminatory treatement by government officials or individuals
De facto segregation
segregation in which people make their own choices to stay segregated; it is not enforced by law. Good example is churches, where many are mostly either white or black
Defense of Marriage Act
Federal government does not recognize same-sex marriage. States do not have to recognize same sex marriage from another state. This should be unconstitutional because of the full faith and credit act, but there hasn't been a case against it so Supreme Court can't do anything
De jure segregation
segregation enforced by government, such as Jim Crow Laws and
Equal Employment Opportunities Commission (EEOC)
is an independent federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. it investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, perceived intelligence, and disability
Equal Rights Amendment
a constitutional amendemtn originally introduced by Congress in 1923 and was not passed by congress in 1972., stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or by andy state on account of sex". The amendment fell short of the ¾ of the state legislatures required for passage.
the unseen, yet unbreachable barrier that keeps minorities and women from rising to the upper rungs of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements
cant vote unless your grandfather did- used to keep black voters from voting after Civil War
a crime that is committed against someone because of their race, religion, sexual orientation.
Jim Crow laws
laws (mainly in the south), that were used to enforce segregation
ruled unconstitutional by supreme court in u of california v Bakke. colleges can have a "critical mass" of minorities, but cannot have a specific number.
refers to the use of an individual's race or ethnicity by law enforcement personnel as a key factor in deciding whether to engage in enforcement (e.g. make a traffic stop or arrest)
Reasonable Basis Test
given to cases in which there is no suspect class used to divide the people. To win, the government only has to show a rational reason that the law is in place. Under this level of scrutiny, the law is most likely to be found constitutional. ex. Drivers licenses can only be given to those 16 and up because it is unsafe to give them to 10 year olds.
Moderate Scrutiny Test
if the suspect class is sex, the Supreme court will apply a middle level of scrutiny. In order to win, the government must show that its law is substantially related to an important government objective. The government has a higher burden of proof, but it is not impossible to meet.For example, if an all-male draft was reinstated, there would be an argument about the exclusion of women, and the Supreme court would apply the moderate level of scrutiny.
Strict scrutiny test
If the suspect class is race, ethnicity or the exercise of a fundamental right, Supreme Court will apply the highest level of scrutiny. In order to win, the government must show that its law that treats people differently is necessarily related to a compelling government interest. it is most likely that the law will be found to be unconstitutional.
separation of racial groups in society. Segregation in the south was promoted and enforced through Jim Crow laws and Black Codes
Separate but equal
established in Plessy v Fergeson and upheld until Brown v Board of Education.
any educational institutions that are either receiving federal aid or admit students who receive federal aid are prohibited from discriminating on the basis of sex. Affects sports programs (programs must have equal funding for men's and women's sports)
primary elections from which blacks were excluded- popular in the south, and became constitutional in 1944
Plessy v Fergeson
1896 supreme court decision that provided a constitutional justification for segregation by ruling that a Louisiana law requiring "equal but separate acommodations for the white and colored races" was constiutitional
Brown v Board of Education
the 1954 supreme court decision holding that school segregation was inherently unconstitutional because it violated the 14th amendment's guarantee of equal protection. This case marked the end of legal segregation in the US
Regents of the University of California v Bakke
a 1978 Supreme Court decision holding that a state university could weigh race or ethnic background as one element in admissions, but could not set aside places for members of particular racial groups.
U Michigan cases
undergraduate was ruled unconstitional because it gave an automatic 20 pt bonus to minorities, and thus it did not have an individualistic approach. The Law school had a "critical mass" of minorities that it needed to have; this was ruled constitutional because it offered an individualistic approach to admitting minorities.
Seattle and Louisville cases (percentage range)
Supreme Court said that they were unconstitutional because it is a violation of equal protection
Bower v. Hardwick
in 1986, Supreme Court ruled that states could ban homosexual relations.
Lawrence v. Texas
in 2003, Supreme Court overturned Bower v Hardwick when it voided a Texas antisodomy law because it was against substantive due process and intrusions on the right to privacy
Formal amdendment process
first, an amendment is proposed either by a 2/3 vote in each house of congress or by a national convention called by Congress at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures. An amendment is ratified by either the legislatures of ¾ of the states or by a special state convention called in ¾ of the states.
there are many changes to the government that were not outlined in the constitution: a defined 2 party system or television influence. The establishment of Judcial review in Marbury v Madison also chanced the national government
opponents of the US constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. Felt that the constitution would create a monarchy or limit state's rights to an extreme point
Articles of Confederation
the first constition of the US, adopted in 1777. The articles established a national legislature-the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with state legislatures. This resulted in an inefficient government, as the central government could tax, but could not enforce the taxes, and was entirely at the mercy of the states for funding and power.
a legislature divided into two houses. The US congress and all state legislatures are bicameral (we pretend Nebraska doesn't exist)
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, drafted in response to some of the Anti-federalist concerns. These amendments define basic liberties like: freedom of religion, press, speech and assembly, right to bear arms, and guarantee of defendant's rights
Checks and balances
features of the constitution that limit government's power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. The three branches of the US government continually constrain one another's activities, as each is trying to get ahead of the other.
Declaration of Independence
the document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared independence.
parties or interest groups that James Madison saw as arising from unequal distribution of property or wealth and attacked as having the potential to cause instability in government
supporters of the constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
there will always be factions because men will always have different opinions and hold different amounts of wealth and property. This paper discussed how to solve the effects of the factions: creating a republic. A large, representative democracy would allow for fairly moderate representatives and a wider variety of options.
aimed to describe how a republic would prevent the possibility of a tyranny of both the minority and the majority. Because it is a democratic system, a minority faction could easily be outvoted. However, a majority faction could be prevented by: placing as much of the government as possible beyond direct control of the majority, separating the powers of different institutions (branches), or constructing a system of checks and balances.
a compromise of the Virginia plan, which called for representation of each state in congress proportional to each state's population, and the New Jersey Plan, which wanted equal representation of each state in congress, regardless of population. The compromise created the House of Representatives (where representation was based on state population) and the Senate (where each state had 2 representatives)
the principle that government should not meddle in the economy (capitalism)
Separation of powers
a feature of the constitution that requires each of the 3 branches of government (legislative, executive, and judicial) to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these institution in a system of checks and balances.
Tyranny of the few
one of the possibilities laid out in Federalist #10- however, because of the democratic system, the few could easily be outvoted by the many
Tyranny of the many
another possibilities laid out in Federalist #10- could be solved by: creating a republic. A large, representative democracy would allow for fairly moderate representatives and a wider variety of options.
a way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are unitary, not federal
gives Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes."
a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between separate units of government
a system of government in which the states and the national government remain supreme within their own separate spheres, each responsible for some policies.
a system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government
when the Republican Party took power of Congress in 1994, they began to shift the power for policies from the federal government to the state and local governments
the clause in Article VI that makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws as long as the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
states that "the power not delegated to the United States by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, is reserved to the states or to the people". Those who are pro-states' rights believe that this means that the states are supreme over the national government; however, others argue that it merely gives states extra rights, not superiority over the national government
Lochner v. New York
(1905) was a landmark Court case that held a "liberty of contract" was implicit in the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
McCulloch v. Maryland
(1819) the Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over the state government. Chief Justice John Marshall held that congress had certain implied powers in addition to the powers enumerated in the constitution
Necessary and Proper Clause (aka Elastic Clause)
found in Article I, and it states that Congress can pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
powers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the constitution; for congress, including the powers listed in Article I
powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution, in accordance with the elastic clause
Gibbons v. Ogden
a landmark case in which the supreme court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article I, giving congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity
United States v. Lopez
(1995) after the New Deal, the Supreme Court usually allowed the federal government to pass laws using the commerce clause. However, in this case, the court held that the clause did not apply because guns in a school zone had nothing to do with commerce
Gonzales v. Raich
(2005) a decision by the Supreme Court ruling that under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution, the United States Congress may criminalize the production and use of home-grown cannabis even where states approve its use for medicinal purposes
Full faith and credit
a clause in article IV requiring each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states
Privileges and immunities
the provision of the constiution giving the citizens of each state equal privledges of citizens of other states (a person from MO visiting IL has a right to have the fire department, IL sales tax)
federal grant given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes of state and local spending. They come with strings attatched, such as nondiscrimination provisions
when national government gives the state a grant, they usually come with mandates, or a requirement that direct states or local government to provide additional services under threat of penalties or as a condition of receipt of a federal grant.
people who vote based on party affiliation and ideologies
money a candidate raises to pay for advertising through the media and to pay for staff
independent political groups that are not subject to contribution restrictions because they are not directly seeking the election of particular candidates (can't say vote for/against)
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
A bipartisain body that administers campaign finance laws and enforced compliance with their restrictions
donations that are made to a candidate or party, that have restrictions on how much an individual can donate
money that indirectly supports a campaign, but is not directly given to the candidate or their party
banned soft money, and tried to deal with the issue of negative ads (required candidates to say that they approve the message, and limited when the ads could run). Balance between free speech rights and corruption, and efforts to regulate that
McConnel v FEC
upheld the McCain-Feingold act, however, various supreme court cases removed many of the restrictions for ads
Political Action Committee (PAC)
a corporation, union, or some other interest group that can donate a limited amount of money to a candidate
no longer exists in the sense that anyone can give any amount to a candidate
a sytems for selecting convention delegates used in several rural states in which voters must show up and attend a meeting to express their presidential preference
a group of individuals with a common interest (political parties are made up of these)
Governance divided between the parties, as when one holds the presidency and the other controls one or both houses of Congress.
election in which the candidates are actually selected
where the behavior of the citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are shaped by technology
party based on a particular set of social and economic beliefs and ideals
those already holding office
a structure that connects people to the government
contributions of up to $250 are matched from the PECF to candidates for the presidential nomination who agree to limit their overall spending
a commission formed at the 1968 Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority groups and others who sought better representation (affermative action)
Elections that occur halfway between the presidential election
New Deal Coalition
a coalition formed by the Democrats, which dominated from 1930s to 1960s. It was composed of urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, southerners, AA and intellectuals.
an election in which no incumbant is running
a leader in a policial party who controls votes and dictates appointments to various positions. Boss Tweed
a meeting of members of a political party or subgroup to coordinate members' actions, choose group policy, or nominate candidates for various offices
a citizen's self proclaimed preference for one party or the other
Association with different parties
a type of political party organization that relies on material incentives, such as patronage, to win votes (Boss Tweed)
a political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next 4 years. The platform is created prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in proportion to each candidate's strength. It is the best statement of a party's beliefs
the displacement of the majoirty party by the minority party, usually during a critical election
a party member who is faithful to their selected party
a government that emphasizes that many groups, each pressing for its own preferred policies, compete and counterbalance one another in the political marketplace
alll of the activities used by citizens to influence the selection of political leaders or the policies they persue. The most common means of political participation in a democracy is voting; other means include protest and civil disobedience
a team that seeks to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in an election
someone who voices their opinion on mass media (glen beck, Nancy grace)
an election in which party members or voters vote to decide who which candidate will participate in the general election
primaries in which voters can be from and vote for any party they chose (party affiliation doesn't matter)
primaries in which only registered voters can participate
elections to select party nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.
- elections in which a state's voters go to the polls to express their preference for a party's nominnee for presidnet. Most delegates to the national party conventions are chosen in this way
These voters are usually party activists and vote based on the candidate's position on specific issues
refers to the religiously motivated right wing (conservative)
a theory of voting to which voters essentially make their decisions based on their answers to the question, "what have you done for me lately?"
people that vote based on a candidate's stance on a single issue (abortion, gun control etc)
when a person votes for candidates from both parties for various government jobsb
national party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the national party convention
refers to a Tuesday in Febuary or March of a presidential election year when the most states hold primary elections to select delegates to national conventions.
describes a vote that can go to either party in an election
electoral contenders other than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they rarely win elections
a system in which there are two main political parties (American system)
when political parties reach out to voters to get them to associate with their party
controversial issue that can divide a coalition or political party
a communication, by someone other than a citizen acting on their own behalf, directed to a governmental decision maker with the hope of influencing their decision
people who represent interest groups
a form of lobbying that focuses on raising awareness at a local level
the desire to associate with people with similar interests or beliefs
some interest groups focus on solving moral issues such as environmentalism or equality
benefits that people get for joining an interest group, such as travel discounts or insurance (AAA, AARP)
organizations that believe that common interests are more important than group interests
the belief that one's political participation really matters, and that one vote can make a difference
people looking at the government- to what extent will the government respond to people- low (decreasing since the 1960s)
ability to participate in political events- tends to be high
the legal right to vote. Granted to African Americans in the 15th amendment, to women in the 19th amendment, and everyone over 18 in the 26th amendment
The efforts of parties, groups, and activists to encourage their supporters to turn out for elections.
Everyone 18 or older who CAN vote (not who is registered or who actually does vote)
personal factors that affect this are income, age, and education, while outside factors include weather, economy, local issues, or whether it is an off year or not.
Political affiliation, Pocketbook issues, Foreign policy (only if soldiers are dying)
primary elections from which African Americans were excluded in the Democratic South. This greatly limited their political influence.
the tendancy for media to be skeptical of politicans, and ready to reveal something unflattering about them
The current era of media coverage that seizes upon any bit of information or rumor that might call into question the qualifications or character of a public official.
Influence in an unfair way
Equal Time rule
U.S. radio and television broadcast stations must provide an equivalent opportunity to any opposingpolitical candidates who request it
policy that required broadcasters to present both sides of a story so as to offer an unbiased and balanced view of controversial issues. However, this was removed in 1987
the media decides which stories or candidates become big (have large amounts of airtime) or stay small and out of the public eye
A type of news story that involves information not usually made public which requires investigative work on the part of a reporter or a leak by some public official.
unauthorized (especially deliberate) disclosure of confidential information
means of popular communication (television, radio, internet)
tabloid newspapers that contain stories about people's private lives, as well as some serious news
a government preventing material from being published. This is a common form of limiting the press in some countries, but is usually unconstitutaional in the US according to 1st amendment rights
Right of Reply Rule
If a person is attacked on a broadcast, other than in a regular news program, that person has the right to reply over that same station.
when media shows which politicians are up in the polls
Americans now hear these in place of speeches, cutting down the candidate's air time dramatically
intentional news leaks for the purpose of assessing the political reaction
Washington Press Corps
all of the journalists in Washington DC at various events
when the media looks for scandal on politicians