Name the three components of blood and their percentages.
Erythrocytes - 45%
Leukocytes/platelets - <1%
Blood Plasma - 55%
Erythrocyte count in the blood
Physical characteristics of blood
Color varies from deep scarlet to bright red
8% of body weight
3 major functions of blood
What does blood 'distribute?'
Oxygen & nutrients, wastes, and hormones
What does blood 'regulate?'
Body temperature, pH in tissues, fluid volume of cells
What does blood 'protect?'
Protects from blood loss and from infection
2 Blood Plasma functions
Major function of erythrocytes
Transport gases like oxygen and carbon dioxide
Results when oxygen bonds with hemoglobin and iron to go to the tissues
Results when oxygen detaches from the hemoglobin and goes back to the lungs
The process of RBC (erythrocyte) production
General blood cell formation
The hormone that regulates RBC production
What is anemia?
Occurs when blood has a low oxygen carrying ability
For what 3 reasons do anemia's occur?
Insufficient number of RBCs
Low hemoglobin content
An anemia caused by a major loss of blood
An anemia caused by a premature rupture of the RBC's not allowing them to reach maturity
An anemia caused by the bone marrow not producing RBC's like it is supposed too
Insufficient iron due to diet or poor absorption
Caused by a lack of Vitamin B12 in which the erythrocytes grow but do not divide
Occurs when erythrocytes are thin, delicate, and hemoglobin deficient
Sickle cell anemia
Substitution mutation of 1 amino acid in the hemoglobin molecule that changes the shape, flexibility & lifespan of the RBCs; cells take on a pointed shape
A dramatic increase in the RBC count causing blood thickening
Artificially induced polycythemia.
How does blood doping work?
Athletes have blood removed
Blood is separated into its parts and the RBCs are kept in storage for up to 4 weeks
Athlete's body makes more blood to replenish what was lost
Stored blood is put back into the athlete prior to event
Function of Leukocytes
Defend against disease from bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins & tumors
A 'leaping across' action that allows the leukocytes to leave the bloodstream and go where they are needed
50-70% of WBC population
Nuclei contain 3-6 lobes
2-4% of WBC population
Nucleus shaped like an old telephone
Defend against parasitic worms and lessens the severity of allergies
.5-1% of WBC population
Nucleus is U or S shaped
Contains histamine which helps blood vessels dilate
25% of WBC population
Found in lymphoid tissues
Have a large dark-purple spherical nucleus
Helps with immunity (T cells) and produces antibodies (B cells)
3-8% of WBC population
Nucleus is U or kidney shaped
Process of WBC production
Occurs when the WBC count is lower than normal
Means 'white blood'
Causes a major increase in the WBC count
Cancer of the WBC's
All cells are member of one out of control clone
Viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and produces a large amount of agranulocytes
Symptoms include: tired, achy
Fragments of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes
Function of Platelets
Help with blood clotting
Forms a temporary plug that seals the damaged area
Hormone that regulates platelet formation
Process of stopping bleeding
Steps of Hemostasis
Platelet plug formation
What occurs during Vascular Spasms?
Immediate response is vasoconstriction of vessel
Is more efficient as tissue damage increases
Most effective in small blood vessels
Can last from a few minutes to 30ish minutes
What occurs during Platelet Plug Formation?
Platelets swell up, become sticky, and begin to stick to collagen fibers.
Platelets release chemicals that help in constriction and plug formation until a larger plug is created.
What occurs during Coagulation?
Chemicals are produced and fibrin threads begin to form.
The liquid mass becomes more solid.
When the platelets contract (get smaller) and pull on the fibrin strands, compacting the clot and bringing the edges of the broken blood vessel together
Removal of unnecessary clots after healing has occurred.
The enzyme plasmin helps in this process.
A clot that develops on an unbroken blood vessel
When a thrombus breaks away and floats in the bloodstream
A thrombus that blocks a blood vessel (pulmonary embolism blocks vessels in the lungs; cerebral embolism blocks vessels in the brain)
Bleeding all over the body from small blood vessels because of a low platelet count
People lack a factor that does not allow their blood to clot properly
4 Blood Groups
A, B, AB, O
Blood Types and Blood Transfusions
A can receive A & O
B can receive B & O
AB can receive A, B, AB, & O
O can receive O
Blood Types can Donate
A can donate to A & AB
B can donate to B & AB
AB can donate to AB
O can donate to A, B, AB, & O
Clumping together of different blood types usually after someone being given the wrong blood type
A molecule capable of causing agglutination of antigens; makes sure you only have your type of blood cells in your body
A substance that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and helps activate the immune system