a state powerful enough to influence events throughout the world
Technologically simple peoples.
A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.
Massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of China between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan.
King George III
Leader of England during the American Revolution war. He was blamed for loss of 13 colonies.
The notion that colonialism was a duty for Europeans and a benefit for the colonized.
The last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries.
Two wars fought between Western powers and China(1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions.
Treaty of Nanjing
A treaty which ended the first Opium war, and imposed restrictions on Chinese sovereignty and opened five ports to European traders
Any one, in the Chinese's point of view, who is not Chinese. After the opium wars China could not call Europeans this.
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West.
Important reformist measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the term "Tanzimat" means "reorganization"
Abd al Hamid
Ottoman sultan (ruled 1876-1909) who accepted a reform constitution at the start of his reign but suspended it shortly afterward, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the next three decades.
Movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed around 1900 and eventually brought down the Ottoman Empire.
Japanese name for the American steam ships. Called this because of the black smoke coming out of them
historical phenomenon of Japan's record period of economic growth
In Japan, a supreme military commander
Feudal lords of Japan who ruled with virtually independents thanks to bands of samurai warriors
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan politically by the early seventeenth century and established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments
what the Chinese called foreigners
The principle that because in international anarchy all global actors are independent, they must rely on themselves to provide for their security and well-being.
According to Japanese legends, the Japanese people are the descendants of the Sun Goddess, who continues to have a special relationship with the country through the person of the emperor.
The large family-controlled banking and industrial groups that owned many companies in Japan before World War II.
"Awakening of the East"
The eastern world advances in technology
Indirect rule, ex. china unofficially under British rule after opium wars.
A conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
a group of Chinese who made a secret society to ward off "foreign devils."
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
trade treaties that China signed under pressure of invasion; gave Western powers trade benefits
"The sick man of Europe"
Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with the internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period.