Zoology Ch 2 Test

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First half of the chapter

Describe 5 levels of organization found in organisms.

__Unicellular: single-celled organisms____

Cellular: colonial (some protists) or multicellular animals with no tissues___

__Tissue: have tissues, which are similar cells grouped together for a common function__

__Organ: have organs (of two or more tissues)with a specific function_

__Organ system: have organs that work together for a common function

Name 4 major types of tissues

epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Describe epithelial tissue

covers an internal or external surface

Describe connective tissue:

for binding and support. Cells are (usually) surrounded by a matrix

Name 5 different types of connective tissues

loose, dense, blood, bone, cartilage_

The function of muscular tissue is

contraction_

The function of nervous tissue is

receiving stimuli; sending impulses_

Name and describe three body plans found in animals related to their symmetry:

_Spherical: Like a ball___

__Radial: round in plane (like a wheel)

__Bilateral: having a head, tail end, left and right

Describe 3 different types of body plans found in the bilaterally symmetrical animals as to body
cavities:

Acoelomates: no cavity surrounding the gut_____

Pseudocoelomates: a body cavity surrounds the gut,but lacks a peritoneum of
mesodermal origin (body cavity is "between" endoderm and mesoderm) ____

Eucoelomates: have a "true" body cavity lined with mesodermal peritoneum__

10. Name 2 types of coelom formation in the eucoelomates, and describe the differences in these
groups.

Schizocoelous : the coelom develops as the early mesoderm splits__

Enterocoelous: the coelom develops from outpocketings of the archenteron___

1. Name the taxa of our hierarchical system of classification in order, from most inclusive to least
inclusive.

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species___

Define taxonomy:

he naming and classification of organisms__

What is a cladogram?

A diagram that shows the pattern of sharing of evolutionarily derived characters among species or higher taxa___

Define cladistics

System of taxonomy that utilizes cladograms

In cladistics, all taxa are

monophyletic

Animal-like protists are called

protozoa

Describe the protozoan body plan:

most: unicellular; some colonial; some with multicellular stages

Protozoans have highly specialized __organelles____, but they do not have __tissues, organs

or germ layers. __ (related to level of organization).

Organelles

Tissues, organs or germ layers

Protozoans do /do not (circle one) have a cell wall.

DO NOT

What do protozoans have in common as to motility?

most are motile

How do most protozoans obtain their nutrition?

heterotrophs by ingestion

Some are also _autotrophic___ or _saprozoic___.

autotrophic or saprozoic

How do all protozoans reproduce?

asexually by mitosis

There is sexual reproduction in no / some / all protozoans.

SOME

Lifestyles present in the protozoa are

_free-living, mutualism, commensalisms,

parasitism___

Give characteristics you learned for each of the following protozoa:

...

Giardia

ntestinal parasite; causes diarrhea. Has flagella.___

Trichonympha

Termite symbiont with flagella.

Volvox

Photosynthetic, with chloroplasts. Sphere-shaped colony._

Chlamydomonas

Photosynthetic, with chloroplasts. Has flagella.__

Euglena

Photosynthetic autotroph in the light, with chloroplasts. Heterotroph in the dark. Has flagella._

Trypanosoma

Causes African Sleeping Sickness, carried by the Tse Tse fly. Has flagellum___

Plasmodium

An endoparasite that causes malaria, carried by mosquitoes. Not motile, except for the male gamete. Apical complex helps to penetrate host cell

Paramecium

Moves with cilia. Is multinucleate. Reproduces asexually by binary fission.

Conjugation allows fro exchange of genetic info.

Dinoflagellates

Have 2 perpindicular flagella. Half are photosynthetic. Include red tide-causing organism and coral symbionts._

Amoeba

Moves and gets food with pseudopodia

Foraminiferans

Have calcium carbonate shells. Move with pseudopodia.

Actinopodans

Have axopodia- slender pseudopodia supported by microtubules._

Protozoa in the phylum _Apicomplexa__ are all endoparasites. An example is

_Plasmodium_____, which causes malaria.

Protozoa in the phylum _Apicomplexa__ are all endoparasites. An example is

_Plasmodium_____, which causes malaria.

Sexual reproduction of Plasmodium takes place in the

mosquito

Protozoa that bear cilia are called

An example is:

Ciliates__

EXAMPLE:
_Paramecium__

In Paramecium, genetic material is exchanged in the process called

_Conjugation__

Paramecium reproduces asexually by a process called

binary fission__

Protozoa in the phylum __Dinoflagellata___ have two perpendicular flagella.

Examples: __Red tide organisms; coral symbionts__

Protozoa in the phylum __Dinoflagellata___ have two perpendicular flagella.

Examples: __Red tide organisms; coral symbionts__

An informal name for protozoa that move and eat with pseudopodia is

__Amoeba__

Amebas with calcium carbonate shells are called

Foraminifera_

Amebas with axopodia are

Actinopodans_

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