regulation (maintain homeostasis)
-works by using chemicals formed by special cells to regulate processes throughout the body.
-responses are slower, but last longer.
the chemicals that are involved in regulation in the the endocrine system.
-released directly into the bloodstream
hormones travel in the blood until they reach this. which contains compatible receptors on its surface
are chemically specific , they can only bind to hormones meant for that receptor (same shape, lock and key)
responses of the endocrine system regulate:
growth, blood pressure, immune responses, the rate of metabolism, muscle contraction, responses to stress, digestion, the development and function of the reproductive system
release secretions through tubes or ducts.
-examples: sweat from glands, digestive enzymes from pancreas
what the endocrine system uses to maintain homeostasis
uses this for body temp. regulation, regulation of water & blood sugar regulation
- cause-effect mechanism
a change detected in the body causes an action in the appropriate area, which will return the body to its original condition
-example "A" causes a change in "B" which than causes a change back in "A"
the body doesn't produce enough insulin (type 1) or the body doesn't respond to the insulin (type 2) and blood glucose remains high
it function is to maintain homeostasis by controlling and coordinating functions throughout the body and responding to the internal and external stimuli
contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm of the cell. the site of metabolic activity
branched extensions off of the cell body which carry impulses from other neurons to the cell body
long fiber that carries the impulses away from the cell body to other neurons
-covered in a myelin sheet for insulation
bundles of neurons branching from the central nervous system to all parts of the body
-long axons of neurons bundle together
a type of neuron, located in the central nervous system, carries impulses between sensory and motor neurons
the nervous system is divided into these to major divisions...
central nervous system, peripheral nervous system
brain and spinal cord
-protected by 3 layers of connective tissue called meninges.
-space between the protective layers contains cerebra spinal fluid (CSF):
fluid acts as an absorber. allows exchange of nutrients and waste products between the blood and nervous tissue.
separated into 3 parts: cerebrum, cerebellum, brain steam.
-each part contains a pacific function of the body
controls voluntary or conscious activities of the body including intelligence and learning.
brain divided into this.
-left controls the right side of the body, while right controls the left side of the body.
receives messages from the sensory organs and relays the info to the cerebrum which causes a response.
connects the brain and spinal cord.
- controls involuntary body functions including blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing
-contains the pons and the medulla oblongata
main communication link between the brain and the rest of the body
-reflexes are produced directly here
peripheral nervous system
all nerves extending off of the brain and spinal cord
-sensory and motor function
transmits impulses from the central nervous system to the muscles or glands.
- two divisions: somatic and automatic
- controls activities that are under conscious control
-movement of skeletal muscles