trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans.
a unit in the complex exchange system of the West African trade; based on the value of an adult male slave.
complex commercial pattern linking Africa, the Americas, and Europe; slaves from Africa went to the New World; American agricultural products went to Europe; European goods went to Africa.
movement inland during the 1830s of Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government.
ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa during the early 19th century; developed military tactics that created the Zulu state.
descendants of 18th century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rainforests of Surinam and French Guiana.