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Francis Xavier

Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower caste groups; later worked in Japan.

Robert Di Nobli

Italian Jesuit active in India during the early 1600s; failed in a policy of first converting indigenous elites.

Hongwu

first Ming emperor (1368-1403); drove out the Mongols and restored the position of the scholargentry.

Macao and Canton

the only two ports in Ming China where Europeans were allowed to trade.

Zheng he

Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration.

Manchus

Jurchen people from region to the northeast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing dynasty after the collapse of the Ming.

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

general under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the diamyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died 1598.

Tokugawa Ieyasu

vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as the most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.

Edo

Tokugawa capital, modern-day Tokyo; center of Tokugawa shogunate.

School of National Learning

18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan's unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.

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