as embryos progress, they begin to take on their own______.
closely related organisms have similar _______.
embryonic stages of development
the embryos of all vertebrae organisms have ______ and a ________ in a similar stage of development. They disappear after _____ weeks of development.
pharyngeal gill, post-anal tail, 5
the two ways to look at common descent
comparative embryology and comparative biochemistry
species that are shown to be close to each other in a taxonomic or phylogenetic sense, ALSO have similar _________ and very similar ________.
amino acid sequences, DNA base sequences
the last piece of evidence that we can use for evolution is_____.
The __________ that occurs in all populations of living things is critical to Darwin's theory and to our understanding of evolution.
It is that variation that natural selection acts upon to _____ certain genotypes in that population while other genotypes are _______ of that population.
preserve, selected out
by interbreeding, the members of a population share a common_____.
the genetic makeup of a population changes over many generations, then you know ____ has occurred.
The Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium is a _______ often described as the cornerstone for _______.
mathematical model, population genetics
population genetics is basically how _____ change in their _____ over time.
when you follow a mathematical model you have to follow the _____ of the model.
Assumptions: All possible genotypes in our population have an equal chance at survival. There is no ________. They will survive at the same rate.
differential survival probability.
Assumptions: if the frequency of allele A is 0.9 and the frequency of allele a is 0.1, then the _____________ in that population appear at the same frequencies, 0.9 and 0.1.
alleles transported by the sperm and egg
genetic structure refers to . . .
a population's frequencies of alleles and genotypes
for evolution to occur in a population, something has to disturb the ________.
A population is in genetic equilibrium when the ________ doesn't change for many generations.
frequency of alleles
What the Hardy-Weinberg law says is that under certain conditions of______, both ________ remain constant from generation to generation in sexually reproducing organisms.
stability, genetic and allelic frequencies
The Hardy Weinberg Principle holds true unless some _______ force changes those _________.
a very strong force would be Darwin's mechanism of ___________.
conditions for the population to remain in genetic equilibrium (1)
1) The population must be large enough for chance factors not to affect allelic frequencies, such as climactic events, invasions by a new predator, invasion by bacterial infection, etc.
Conditions for a population to remain in genetic equilibrium (2)
2) Mutations cannot occur in our population. If they do occur, then the mutations must be in mutational equilibrium: a forward mutation must equal a backward mutation
Conditions for a population to remain in genetic equilibrium (3)
you can't have immigration or emigration
Conditions for a population to remain in genetic equilibrium (4)
mating must be at random with respect to genotype
Conditions for a population to remain in genetic equilibrium (5)
5) Reproductive success must be totally random with respect to genotype. There can be no differential reproduction of various genotypes. Natural selection cannot occur!
the mutation from a more common allele to a less common allele
a change from a less common allele to a more common allele
the 3 people who came up with the Hardy Weinberg Principle
Castle, Hardy, Weinberg
the man who created the punnet square
the frequencies of alleles in a population
p2 + 2pq+q2=1 represents
the frequencies of genotypes in a population