Western-style reforms within the Ottoman Empire between 1839 and 1876; included a European-influenced constitution in 1876.
members of the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress: intellectuals and political agitators seeking the return of the 1876 constitution; gained power through a coup in 1908.Mamluks: rulers of Egypt under the Ottomans; defeated by Napoleon in 1798; revealed the vulnerability of the Muslim world.
descendants of Muhammad Ali and rulers of Egypt until 1952.
conservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty.
last Qing ruler; deposed in 1912
rulers of Egypt under the Ottomans; defeated by Napoleon in 1798; revealed the vulnerability of the Muslim world.
wealthy group of merchants under the Qing; specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast
massive rebellion in southern China in the 1850s and 1860s led by Hong Xinquan; sought to overthrow the Qing dynasty and Confucianism