Unit 5 - Chapter 27

12 terms by nepatsown 

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intelligentsia

Russian term for articulate intellectuals as a class; desired radical change in the Russian political and economic system; wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from the West.

anarchists

political groups that thought the abolition of formal government as a first step to creating a better society; became important in Russia and was the modern world's first large terrorist movement.

Bolsheviks

literally the majority party, but actually a minority group; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by Lenin.

Duma

Russian national assembly created as one of the reforms following the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Nicholas II.

Stolypin reforms

Russian minister who introduced reforms intended to placate the peasantry after the Revolution of 1905; included reduction of land redemption payments and an attempt to create a marketoriented peasantry.

kulaks

agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin reforms to buy more land and increase production.

terakoya

commoner schools founded during the Tokugawa shogunate to teach reading, writing, and Confucian rudiments; by mid-19th century resulted in the highest literacy rate outside of the West.

Dutch Studies

studies of Western science and technology beginning during the 18h century; based on texts available at the Dutch Nagasaki trading center.

Matthew Perry

American naval officer; in 1853 insisted under threat of bombardment on the opening of ports to American trade.

zaibatsu

huge industrial combines created in Japan during the 1890s.

"yellow peril"

Western term for perceived threat from Japanese imperialism.

zemstvoes

local political councils created as part of Alexander II's reforms; gave middle class professional experience in government but did not influence national policy.

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