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cj

Beccaria

Known as the founder of classical criminology because his theories about crime marked the beginning of a new approach to criminological thought that would eventually lead to modern theories.Fundamental for 6th and 8th Amm.

basic premise of the classical theory of criminology

criminal behavior is a matter of free will and choice and that certain, swift, and appropriate pain will deter people from criminal behavior

Jeremy Bentham

Credited with the formation of the neoclassical school of criminology, with the basic foundation that the concept that criminal behavior is a matter of free will and the choice to commit criminal behavior can be deterred by pain and punishment.

Major difference

Bentham believed Beccaria was too strict

Crime

is a matter of free will and a choice based on the weighing of potential pleasure and pain

Criminology

The interdisciplinary study of crime and the impact of crime on society and the criminal justice system

First theories on Crime

Religion was directly related to government, religion guided, Italian or England. you would drive the evil out

Classical Crim.

The age of enlightenment

Beccaria punishment

Necessary-punishment should fit the crime. Minimal-punishment should fit the crime. Proportional- punishment should fit the crime.

Beccaria

Harsh punishment is not a detterent, let punihsment fit the crime.

Age of Enlightenment

Bentham. free will motivated toward pleasure. Gain vs. Pain. He deisgned his own form of prison, where there was little a circle thingy.

Cesare Lombroso

Father of CRIMINOLOGY. he was greatly influences by Darwin. he believed that criminals could be identified based on their physical traits.

Psychological positivism

psychological theory, is like the ego and superego. the concept that behavior is not a matter of free will but is controlled by subconscious desires, which includes the idea that criminal behavior is a result of unresolved internal conflict and guit

Freudian theory

crime is a symptom of a person's unresolved psychological conflict. unfilled sexual desires, unhappy personality.

Signs of trouble

animal abuse

Social Disorganization

Zones of transition, the concentric zone theory. crime is centralized in the middle of the city and works its way out.

Social disorganization

crimes in mostly the area of change. crime in mostly in areas of transition.

strain theory

crime is a direct result of lower-class frustration and anger. a feeling of depression. a crime is a direct result of something. You are working hard, but you cant get what you want so you attempt something illegal.

Merton's 5 modes of personality adaptation

CONFORMIST. INOVATOR. RITUALIST. RETREATISM. REBEL.

Conformist

they will never succeed, and they never work it out, but they will never break the law

Innovator

criminal, a way around the systems, fraud. Small or large.

Ritualistic

A type of person every day, will rub the lukcy frog foot, goes to church play the lottery, certain method to picking their numbers

Retreatism

retreats from society, or from reality through substance abuse drugs or drinking. then getting into selling drugs and violence, accidents under the influence

rebel

people who want to redefine things that are happening. hippies. terrorists, wealth, power, and success.

Robert Agnew

General strain theory- removable of positive stimuli, and introduction of negative stimuli.

Crime

Crime is learned.

Social bond theory

Crime takes place when bonds to society are broken, when bonds to society are weakened.

Feminist Criminology

Gender based inequality, feminist criminology studies

Index Crimes

Major felonies, a felony carries punishment of more than 1 year in prison.

Random Crime

It is all about luck

6th Amendment

right to a speedy trial

8th Amendment

excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Classical school thoeries

the school of thought that individuals have free will to choose whether or not to commit crimes and that criminals should have rights in the cj system

neoclassical school theories

difference if the beliefs that there are mitigating circumstances for criminal acts, such as the age of mental capacity

zone theory

social environments based on status differences, including poverty, lack of schooling causes probems

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