Structuarlism is the historical school of psychology that asserted the purpose of psychology is to ___________
discover the smaller elements that compromise conciousness
What theorist would tend to emphasize explanations in terms of freedom and potentional for personal growth?
Recent research trends in psychology involve two largely ignored by early behaviorists. They are _________________
cognition(thinking) & evolutionary process
The assertion that "psychology is emperical" means that psychology is based on _________
Introspection was MOST likely to be used by what type of psychologist?
That psychology should study only what can be objectively observed is the focus of which of the following "schools" of psychology ?
What would be LEAST likely to be studied by a cognitive psychologist?
shaping behavior by reinforcement
Nature is to nurture as heredity is to ______
What is a major assumption of science?
events occur in a relatively orderly or particular manner
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical science exercise helps peoples moods (makes them happier). Subjects in the group participate on Mon & Tues and those in the control group on Weds & Thurs. What is the independent variable?
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical science exercise helps peoples moods (makes them happier). Subjects in the group participate on Mon & Tues and those in the control group on Weds & Thurs. What is the dependent variable?
the mood (degree of happiness)
The major advantage of the experimental method over the correlational approach is that the experimental method ___________
permits one to make casual conclusions
Researchers find an inverse relationship between alcohol consumption and speed of response. what fictitious statistic could possibly represent that correlation?
What procedure helps correct for experimenter bias?
use of double blind procedure
A researcher wants to see if a protein enriched diet will enhance the maze-running performance of the rats. One group of rats is fed the high-protein diet for the duration of the study, the other group continuous to receive ordinary rat chow. In the experiment, the rats performance is the __________
As interest rates increase, house sales decline, indicating ________
a negative correlation between two variables
Placebos are used in research to control for _____
the subjects expectations about treatment
Most neurons are involved in transmitting information from _________
one neuron to another
What part of the neuron has the responsibility for receiving information from other neurons?
The change in popularity of a neuron that results from the inflow of sodium ions and the outlaw of potassium ions is called the __________
The task of passing a message from one neuron to another is actually carried out by ___________
Persons having difficulty with language and speech following an accident that resulted in injury to to the brain are most likely to have sustained damage to the ___________
left cerebral hemisphere
The electrical charge inside aneuron when it's in its resting state is approximately
- 70 millivolts
An impulse moves from one neuron to another through action of ____________
Damage to the cerebellum is more likely to result in _____________
problems with coordination of movement
What are the central themes of psychology?
1experience is subjective
2psychology is a science
3involves multiple competing theories
4no one theory explains it all
5levels of analysis interact in ways that constantly effect functioning
6an evolutionary science & involves socio-historic context
a science of the mind and behavior
how does psychology relate to the level of the brain? (levels of analysis)
brain is the hard wire and the mental processes are the programs that run it
What is the single most important even in psychology?
World War II
Who focused on identifying the "building blocks of consciousness" also the founder of scientific psychology
What is a concept of Wilhelm Wundt's structuralism?
it was focused on that the mind could be broken down
What is a concept of Wilhem Wundt's introspection?
looking within- technique of observing mental events as they occur.. not objectively verifiable.. limited access (excludes unconscious mind)
Who made psychology famous?
Define WIlliam James' concept of functionalism?
seeks to understand how peoples minds adapt to the world around them
Define and describe Gestalt psychology
focused on the idea that the whole is greater that the sum of its parts. focused on a consciousness and principles of perceptual organization
Who invented the idea of what mental illness is, also one the first psychologists?
Define Psycho dynamic theory?
where mental illnesses came from. one of the most difficult theories of psychology. the mind has separate behaviors: conscious and unconscious
What is the UNCONSCIOUS? (in the Psychodynamic theory)
outside conscious awareness and not able to be brought into consciousness at will.
What is the theory of behaviorism entail?
Based on the idea that you can not study the unconsciousness
Who invented the theory of behaviorism?
Who made the theory of behaviorism important?
What did Watson propose as the basic goals of scientific theory?
1. the mind cannot be observed
2. behavior can be observed
3. science should study the observable
Who began animal research?
What is S-R psychology?
behaviorism, the same theory applies (the idea that you can not study unconsciousness)
What is reinforcement?
any consequence of a given behavior (think B.F. Skinner)
What is Humanistic psychology?
emerged in 1950s based on belief that people have positive values, free will, and deep inner creativity. inspired by the positive psychology movement (human behavior is completely out of human control)
Who created the idea of Humanistic psychology?
Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow
What is cognitive psychology?
the approach in psychology that attempts to characterize the mental events that allow information to be stored and operated on internally
What is cognitive neuroscience?
the approach in pyschology thatt blends cognitive psychology and neuroscience (the study of the brain) when attempting to specify how the brain gives rise to mental processes that store and process information
What is evolutionary psychology?
evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived, these strategies remain today because they serve an adapt function
What is cultural universality?
insistences of the same practice mental processes occurring in all cultures around the world
language, belief, values, norms, and behaviors shared among members of a group and passed from one generation to the next
the study of how cultures reflect and shape the psychology processes of the minds of their members
What is absolutism?
culture makes little to no difference for psychological phenomenom
What is relativism?
the idea that psychological phenomenon very considerably from one culture to the next
What is a clinical psychologist?
treats mental illness
What is a counseling psychologist?
day to day living and adjustment problems. (divorce, marital problems)
What is a psychiatrist?
physician who specializes in the diagnosis of mental disorders
What does an academic psychologist do?
teaches class and does research
What does an applied psychologist do?
Solves problems in practical areas
What is pseudopsychology?
a superstition or unsupported opinion pretending to be science (ex. palm reading, astrology)
What is the function of a neuron?
cells that receive signals from other neurons or sense organs
What is the function of a dendrite?
the receiving end... receives messages from the axon of other neurons
What is the function of a cell body?
the central part of the neuron. the cell body processes all signals received by the neuron
What is the function of an axon?
the sending end of a neuron.. takes info to its destination
What are terminal buttons and where on the neutron are the located?
at the end of the terminal, release chemicals into the space between neurons when the neuron has been triggered.
what are sensory neurons?
respond to input from sense organs transmits to brain and spinal cord
what are motor neurons?
sends signals to muscles to control movement
what are brain circuits?
sets of neurons that effect one another when one neuron in a circuit is triggered.
at rest neurons maintain a negative charge
the shifting change in charge that mvoes down the axon
the all or none law:
it either fires or it doesn't (chemicals)
a fatty substance that helps impulses travel down the axon more efficiently
when an axon of one neuron sends a signal to the dendrite of another neuron
the gap between 2 neurons
chemicals that carry signals from the terminal buttons of the sending neuron across the synaptic cleft to the dendrite of the receiving neuron
sacs holding neurotransmitters
specialized sites on the dendrites or cell bodies that respond to specific neurotransmitters
only certain neurotransmitters can activate certain receptors
making the receiving neuron more likely to fire an action potential
making the receiving neuron less easily triggered
the excess neurotransmitter back into the vesicles of the sending neuron
a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including motor control and memory. Malfunctions liked alzheimer's disease
a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, and reward. Malfunctions linked to schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease
a neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, inhibition, and mood. Malfunctions linked to depression
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-
the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Malfunctions liked to anxiety disorders
released by the RECIEVING neuron that influence the activity of SENDING neuron
agonist v. antagonists
mimic the effects of a neurotransmitter by activating by activating a particular type of receptor (LCD, COCAINE, METH)
block a particular receptor.
selective serotonin- reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)-
block the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin
help in the care and feeding of neurons
Central Nervous System
The spinal cord and brain together
Peripheral Nervous System
Links the brains to the organs and muscles to the bodies
Autonomic Nervous System
Controls the smooth muscles in the body and some glandular functions
Sensory Somatic Nervous System (SSNS)
Neurons in our sensory organs that convey information to the brain
Sympathetic Nervous System
Readies an animal for an emergency.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Counteracts sympathetic effects by decreasing heart rate, contracting pupils, increasing salivation massively
The flexible rope of nerves that runs inside the backbone
Automatic responses to an event
Pinkish gray surface on the brain
Each half of the brain is shaped like a sphere