Holt Modern Biology chapter 2 section 3

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polar molecule

a molecule with a positive and a negatively charged end. water is an example

hydrogen bond

the type of bond that links water molecules together

cohesion

when water molecules attract other water molecules. this property creates surface tension

adhesion

the attractive force between two different substances. this causes a meniscus in a glass graduated cylinder

solution

solvent and solute together make up this substance

solute

the substance dissolved in the solvent

solvent

the substance in which the solute is dissolved

aqueous solution

a solution in which water is the solvent

saturated solution

a solution in which no more solute can be added

hydroxide ion

name this ion OH-

hydrogen ion

name this ion H+

acid

a solution in which the hydrogen ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide ion concentration

base

a solution in which the hydroxide ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen ion concentration

neutral solution

a solution in which the hydrogen and hydroxide ion concentrations are in equal amounts

pH scale

the scale used for measuring acids and bases

buffers

a solution that resists changes in pH when an acid or base is added

concentration

the amount of solute in a fixed amount of solution

acids

hydrochloric, sulfuric and nitric are all examples of strong ______________

alkaline

another word used for base

acid rain

precipitation with a low pH generally less than 5.6

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